L02 Slide 16 Ocean Acidification About one third of CO 2 released by human

L02 slide 16 ocean acidification about one third of

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L02 Slide 16 Ocean Acidification About one third of CO 2 released by human activities is absorbed by the oceans (22 Mt per day) CO 2 dissolves in the surface water and forms carbonic acid In the past 200 years, the ocean pH decreased by 0.1 The lowered pH affects shells and skeleton of marine organisms Source: Climate Interpreter
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L02 Slide 17 Ocean Acidification CO 2 + H 2 O + CO 3 2 2HCO 3- Net reaction: CO 2 CO 2 HO 2 H 2 CO 3 HCO 3 -1 Atmospheric carbon dioxide Dissolved carbon dioxide Water Carbonic acid Bicarbonate ions Hydrogen ions Carbonate ions CaCO 3 Ca 2+ Calcium carbonate Calcium ions CO 3 -2 H + HCO 3 -1 Bicarbonate ions
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L02 Slide 18 Acidification (Table B.3) DFES Book, Appendix B
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L02 Slide 19 Eutrophication Eutrophication (nutrient enrichment) is excessive richness of nutrients in any water body leading to excessive amounts of aquatic plant growth Source: http :// Anoxia : Lack of dissolved oxygen in water Algae : Single-celled or multicellular plants or plantlike organisms that contain chlorophyll Algal bloom : Rapid increase or accumulation in the population of algae
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L02 Slide 20 Eutrophication
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L02 Slide 21 Natural Eutrophication Also referred to as lake aging A very slow and gradual process, occurring over a period of many centuries Occurs when production and consumption within the lake do not cancel out and the lake slowly becomes overfertilized Natural run-off nutrients from the soil and the weathering of rocks
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L02 Slide 22 Cultural (Anthropogenic) Eutrophication
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L02 Slide 23 Case study: Lake Erie
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L02 Slide 24 Eutrophication (Table B.4) DFES Book: Appendix B
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L02 Slide 25 Toxic Air Pollution Emissions of highly toxic (often carcinogenic) compounds Air toxics: Gases including benzene, toluene and xylenes (all found in gasoline) Liquid aerosols such as perchloroethylene (used in dry cleaning) and methylene chloride (an industrial solvent) Particles including heavy metals (e.g. cadmium, chromium, lead and mercury) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons formed when fossil fuels and waste materials are burned
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L02 Slide 26 Dioxins and Furans Polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs) Dioxin A heterocyclic aromatic system Furan Each group share a similar chemical skeleton: The number of the chlorine atoms and their positions determine the toxicity of different dioxins 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo- p- dioxin ( TCDD ) One of the most toxic dioxins Carbon Oxygen Hydrogen Chlorine Two 6-carbon benzene rings 5-membered aromatic ring Furan
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L02 Slide 27 Sources and Effects in Canada Major source: Burning of municipal and medical large-scale waste Other Sources Production of iron and steel Backyard burning of plastic waste Fuel burning Wood burning Electrical power generation Tobacco smoke Harm to the cardiovascular system Cancer Harm to the brain Birth defects Irritation to the eyes, nose and throat Coughing and wheezing Impaired lung function Reduced fertility Health effects:
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  • Fall '09
  • MURRAYTHOMSON

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