the moro reflex Interest in novelty Desire to explore and manipulate objects

The moro reflex interest in novelty desire to explore

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Infant reflexes; ex. the moro reflex Interest in novelty Desire to explore and manipulate objects Impulse to play Basic cognitive skills (mental modules) How Does Evolution of Behavior Occur? - Natural Selection of individuals with traits that give them survival and reproductive edge over others - The genes behind the successful traits become more frequent in the population - Ex. human cooperation Sexual Selection - Natural selection arising through preference by one sex for certain characteristics in individuals or the other sex - Intrasexual Selection: competition within a sex - Intersexual Selection: individuals making decisions about who to mate with - Modern mating preferences have a long evolutionary history Why do we like certain shapes, personalities, and abilities? - Sex differences in courtship and mating: Evolutionary approach: examine male-female differences based on differing evolutionary pressures and challenges Consider out ancestral environments: what led to greater reproductive success for males vs females? Males: mating with as many people as possible Females: choosing a mate with optimal genes How much minimum investment was required to reproduce in males and females? Males- minimal; females- 9months+ Can we predict how males and females might differ as a result? - More men value looks than women, whereas more women value money than men Is Jealousy an Adaptation? - Aggressive, angry behaviors - Buss, 1992 18-09-20 Lecture 5 Criticisms of Sex-Difference Theory - Mating behavior varies widely across cultures - Actual behavior does not always match stereotypes - Research samples are not always representative - Significant evolutionary changes could have occurred since the Pleistocene epoch What about clearly maladaptive behavior and responses?
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- Mismatch Theory : what was adaptive in our evolutionary environment is not necessarily adaptive now, and vice versa. - Not all traits are adaptations Human Differences - We share many of our genes (and thus traits) as a result of our shared evolutionary heritage—but we also have different genotypes - Heritability: proportion of variation of a trait in a population that can be explained by genetic differences - Heritability of traits will be higher amongst individuals raised in similar environments, and lower when environments are dissimilar across individuals - But, even highly heritable traits can be modified by the environment - Human intelligence: variation within and between groups How to Determine Heritability - Twin studies and adoptive studies Social Darwinism - The idea that some human societies are more evolved than others - Misapplication of evolutionary ideas *Paul Sergeant Video 18-09-25 Lecture 6 Chapter 4: The Brain Intro to the Brain - Size is relative to body size - Extent of folding; convolutions; much more prevalent in humans than most other species - Connectivity; reflects on cognitive abilities - Functional specialization; language, comprehension of speech Topic to Cover: - Organization of the brain and nervous system - Neurons and their anatomy and communication -
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