estimate existing values or categories Nominal merely labels variable

Estimate existing values or categories nominal merely

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: estimate existing values or categories Nominal: merely labels variable categories, should be exhaustive and mutually exclusive Ordinal : numbers indicate rank order Interval : numbers indicate distance between cases Ratio : has an absolute zero point Accuracy : is it true Consistency : ensuring that we get the same response of the same phenomenon Validity : issue of accuracy, truthfulness, means we are measuring what we think we are measuring Reliability : issue of consistent, repeatability of your measures Internal consistency/split-halve reliability : measure the consistency of “scores” across a set of items Test-retest reliability : the degree to which two measurements are related to each other when measuring a phenomenon at two points in time Inter-rater reliability : measure consistency across different observers or coders Face validation : the extent to which an indicator/measure reasonably reflects a concept Convergent validation : determine the extent to which independent measures of the same concept are associated Construct validation : determine the extent to which an operational definition is related to other variables as theoretically expected Index/Scale : complexity of social concepts; dimensions, multiple indicators. Composite measures. Ethics: standards of conduct that distinguish right from wrong Research Ethics: standards that apply to conducting and reporting research National Research Act (and relation to Belmont Report): implemented the Belmont Report Potential harm: personal safety is the right of every research participant; physical, psychological or social Informed consent: arises from the value placed on freedom of choice, participants must be able to make a rational decision about whether to participate and participation must be voluntary Deception: intentionally misleading or misinforming participants about a study Invasion of privacy: individuals have the right to decide when, where, to whom and to what extent personal information is revealed Common Rule: applies to all federally funded research and all US colleges and universities
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IRB: required to assure compliance with federal regulations, researchers must submit a research proposal to IRB Conflict of interest: conflict between the goal of producing unbiased knowledge and other motives such as financial gain and political interests Social responsibility: researchers’ ethical obligation to be aware of and provide direction to how others use their findings Social Desirability Effect: a tendency of respondents to bias answers to self-report measures so as to project socially desirable traits and attitudes Exhaustive and mutually exclusive: all possible values/categories of a variable available so that every case can be classified and that each case can be placed in one and only one category of a variable Key Questions The text provides a checklist for making sure that an informed consent document meets certain standards. What are the components of that informed consent
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