SENSATION and PERCEPTION Chapter 3 Invisible processes that are constantly

Sensation and perception chapter 3 invisible

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SENSATION and PERCEPTION- Chapter 3 Invisible processes that are constantly working to interact with the world. Sight The Perceptual Process Environmental stimulus- light waves Attended stimulus (the part of the stimuli we’re paying attention to) Stimulus on the receptors Transduction- sensory neurons convert sensory stimulation into neural impulses order that light passes through the eye: cornea, lens, retina, optic nerve photoreceptors- rods (shape) and cones (color and detail) Processing (knowledge)- feature detectors- neurons that fire depending on small, miniscule details about the stimulus Perception (knowledge)- information a person brings to a situation; plays an important role in perception and recognition Recognition Action Entire process repeats Perceiving Color Functionalist viewpoint perspective emphasised by Charles Darwin color is produced by wavelengths of light that reflect off of (or pass through) an object. this occurs in the visible light of the EM spectrum every surface has a reflectance curve flat reflectance curves are associated with achromatic colors (white, gray, black) all wavelengths of light are reflected equally selective reflection associated with chromatic colors some wavelengths are reflected, while others are absorbed colors are created by our perceptual system proposed by Isaac Newton the colors that are absorbed are the ones we cannot see. The colors that are reflected are the ones we can see example: blue (shorter wavelength) is absorbed, and green and red (longer wavelengths) are reflected, revealing a color in the middle of the spectrum, yellow DO NOT THINK ABOUT MIXING PAINTS! achromatic- white, grey, black; is the reflection of all colors chromatic- rainbow colors; only some colors are reflected we must have at least three types of cones to see color short cones (blue) medium cones (green) long cones (red) there are three types of opponent processes
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blue-yellow red-green black-white when looking at a specific color for too long, those cones become fatigued and the opposite color cones take over Cone-based deficiencies monochromat no cones (or only one type of cone) dichromat 2 types of cones (different variations) red-green color deficiency (more common): more prevalent in males because it’s linked to the X-chromosome. Will appear in girls if the trait is on both X-chromosomes blue-yellow color deficiency (rare): males and females equally Cortical deficiencies cerebral achromatopsia- when the part of the brain that translates wavelengths is damaged Perceptual Organization Wundt’s structuralism Gestalt psychologists structuralism does not equal the sum of the parts, it cannot explain perception Perceptual Principles similarity- similar things are grouped together continuity- lines are seen as continues even when interrupted
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