G the owners supply chains and retailers to

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their stakeholders (e.g., the owners, supply chains, and retailers) to participate in eco-friendly fashion business practices (Abreu 2015 ). There are three major forms of initiatives of textile companies for environmental sustainability: (a) corporate social responsibility (CSR), (b) green supply chain management (GSCM), and (c) eco-design. Environmental Sustainability in the Textile Industry 19
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3.1 Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) Corporate social responsibility (CSR) is a company s obligation to perform their business activities in a manner that is not harmful to the society or to the envi- ronment (Steiner and Steiner 2009 ). To execute CSR, fi rms assess their production in terms of economic, social, and environmental aspects (Taylor 2015 ). There are various forms of CSR such as pro fi t sharing with nonpro fi t organizations, product giveaways for every sale made, and the use of sustainably grown raw materials or ingredients. For example, the company Ben and Jerry s only uses ingredients produced by their dairy farm sustainability program; Starbucks also sources coffee grown and processed based on their eco-friendly practice guidelines of C.A.F.E. program; Toms Shoes donates one pair of shoes to a child in need whenever a customer buys a pair (Taylor 2015 ). From an environmental standpoint, a primary focus of CSR is protecting the environment, with a main focus on carbon footprint reduction. Currently, the textile industry consumes a quarter of the chemicals produced by all industries in the globe (Conca 2015 ). As a result, the textile industry creates over 10 % of global carbon emissions, and from cheap synthetic fi ber productions, also emits toxic gases, such as N2O, 300 times more environmentally destructive than CO 2 (Conca 2015 ). To reduce these carbon emissions, CSR encourages textile companies to invest their efforts and budgets toward eco-friendly business practices. Epstein-Reeves ( 2012 ) addressed multiple bene fi ts of CSR for the fi rms: (a) in- novation, (b) cost savings, (c) brand differentiation, and (d) long-term thinking. First, for innovation, companies research and development efforts can create innovative products in which the core is environmental sustainability (e.g., Unilever s hair conditioner consuming less water). Second, CSR allows the fi rms to save costs through reduced packaging and energy usage (e.g., Levi s Water<Less jeans saving up to 92 % of water for production) (Levis N.D.). Third, incorporating sustainability into the company s business model can differentiate brands (e.g., Patagonia s 1 % for the planet program donates 1 % of sales for environmental protection) (Patagonia N.D.c). Fourth, fi rms can shift their business paradigms from short-term interest gains to long-term thinking, ensuring the fi rm s future (e.g., gaining the trust of consumers and employees) (Taylor 2015 ).
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