However the time period for the batches can vary both

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However, the time period for the batches can vary both from well to well and during the life of an individual well. When sand has been constantly produced over time, it is useful to be aware of conditions within the reservoir. The need to anticipate and track damage from sand is the main reason for measuring sand production. By using an efficient monitoring device with a high degree of repeatability and sensitivity, the producers can avoid erosion corrosion or reservoir damage but also can increase oil and gas production. The increase in production can be as dramatic as shown in the examples that follow. However, to do this you need repeatability, sensitivity and real time measurement. Sand Production in Oil and Gas Production During the last decade, the production philosophy has changed considerably. In the early stage of the petroleum industry, sand in production was not an issue. Operators produced until the choke or pipelines wore out. In the twenty-first century, there is a demand for new technology to boost wells and to serve the interests of cost, safety and environment. In general, oil is produced from more hostile environments. All these different production sites need a different focus. Land Installations For land installations, most of the production is from reservoirs with low flow velocity and little erosion. Sand is not the most important issue. Erosion and corrosion caused by chemicals is a greater concern. There are, however, many land based locations that need sand monitoring. In these cases, the sand monitoring equipment is located at the well head, upstream of the manifold. Monitoring sand on a manifold is useless if the objective is to find which well is producing sand. The sand production from land wells normally comes in batches — in large or small quantities. The time period for the batches can vary both for the individual well itself and from well to well. When sand has been constantly produced over a period of time, it is useful to be aware of 408 Acoustic Emission Testing P ART 3. Acoustic Emission Monitoring of Sand in Petroleum Wells
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the conditions within the reservoir itself. Wells have collapsed because of high sand production. Sand monitoring systems can reduce damage in cases like these. Offshore Topside Installations Erosion caused by sand is a concern at offshore installations, where almost all production is from reservoirs with high flow velocity. Production is normally reduced to a level lower than necessary, as a consequence of uncertainty of when and how much sand is produced. In vertical wells, the sand production is in many cases similar to the pattern described above for land installations. In horizontal wells, the flow velocity is low where the sand is being produced and increases as the sand is lifted in the vertical section up to the surface, typically more than 1000 m (3300 ft). The sand goes up in batches in the vertical section.
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  • Fall '19
  • The Land, Nondestructive testing, Acoustic Emission, Acoustic Emission Testing

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