2 the normal feedback loop that regulates

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Human Biology
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Chapter 16 / Exercise 5
Human Biology
Starr/McMillan
Expert Verified
2. The normal feedback loop that regulates testosterone production in the male: Hypothalamus releases gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)-->GnRH stimulats the anterior pituitary-releasing luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)-->LH stimulates Leydig Cells--->Leydig Cells stimulate testosterone 3. Spermatogenesis is the process in which sperm cells are developed within the male testes which is regulated through the development of testosterone. Testosterone also plays a key role in the development of secondary sexual characteristics such as to regulate sex drive (libido), bone and muscle mass, and the growth of body hair. 4. Causes of low testosterone include: injury to the testicles, testicular cancer or treatment for testicular cancer, hormonal disorders, infection, HIV/AIDS, chronic live or kidney disease, Type 2 diabetes, and obesity. 5. The lack of LH stimulation after GnRH is given shows that the patient's pituitary gland is not functioning adequately. If the pituitary gland was functioning than the administration of GnRH should have caused LH to be stimulated. 6. HCG increases testosterone by mimicking LH. This increase indicates that the gonads are working, meaning the problem is the lack of LH stimulation by the anterior pituitary gland. 7. I believe secondary male hypogonadism is what is going on with this patient based on the low gonadotropin levels (LH & FSH) and lack of stimulation from the pituitary gland. When given the GnRH, there was no elevation in LH from the anterior pituitary however there was normal testosterone production with the administration of HCG. 8. Primary hypogonadism: testicular failure due to problem in the testes. Low androgens, low sperm count as a result form lack of negative feedback from hypothalamic pituitary level. High gonadotropins (high LH & FSH), hypergonadotrophic hypogonadism. Secondary hypogonadism: lack of stimulation through gonadotropins (LH&FSH) from the pituitary. Low androgens, low sperm count, results from lack of secretion of gonadotropins from hypothalamic-pituitary level, low gonadotropins (LH&FSH), hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism. Case 6C-Endometriosis
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Human Biology
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Chapter 16 / Exercise 5
Human Biology
Starr/McMillan
Expert Verified
1. Endometriosis is when endometrial tissue is found in ectopic sites outside the uterus. It causes pain, bleeding and possible infertility. While the cause is unknown, there are a number of possible theories: return of endometrial tissue to fallopian tubes in retrograde menstruation, faulty immune system, and undetermined genetic causes. A first degree relative with the condition is considered a risk factor. It is also possibly related to changes in immunity. 2. Retrograde menstruation theory-(regurgitation/implantation theory)-menstrual blood that contains fragments of endometrial tissue flows upward through the fallopian tubes into the peritoneal cavity. Most women experience this but it is unknown why certain women develop endometriosis. The immune system typically clears this refluxed tissue and it is thought that it is maybe immune system dysfunction as one reason why the

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