matches hypotheses o Drawing Conclusions determining which hypothesis is

Matches hypotheses o drawing conclusions determining

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matches hypotheses o Drawing Conclusions; determining which hypothesis is supported, any limitations in the study to consider, further research Designing Studies and Gathering Data o Experiments: split people into two identical groups except that one group is exposed to independent variable and the control group is not
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4 § Meets 3 criteria of causality, but is limited by practical and ethical restraints o Interviews and Surveys in which a large group of people are asked the same questions so comparisons can be drawn § Limitations: wording of questions has to be standardized and able to be understood in the same way by every person; and MC answers have to be broad and applicable to everyone unless open ended answers are available too § Usually need to do field research or interviews to figure out how to properly pose questions o Sampling permits conclusions about entire populations by studying a few representative people § Random Sample: every person, group, organization, etc of population must have an equal and known chance of being selected for inclusion in the sample; makes it likely that results occurred by chance § Sample to save resources and workload, have a known accuracy § Sample Frame: list from which the potential respondents are drawn o Field Research: going to where the people are and observing and sometimes participating § Recording devices allow playback and allow others to see, but are limited to the perspective it has; you don't see whole picture § Might be bias when selecting people to share their viewpoints o Existing Data and Documents like from government but different government can collect data in varying ways § Comparative historical analysis: study events over time and compare cases that different in certain key respects but are similar in other important ways For many of the research methods, people influence what is learned about them; so look for nonreactive measures ie. Physical evidence rather than their words Content Analysis- to describe and analyze in an objective and systematic way the content of literature, speeches or media o Helps us measure the ideas that are in circulation Example of Research Process: 1980s statistics show that working class youth commit more crimes than middle class youth; but theories drawn from this statistics ended up not being valid because there were criticisms against the research like police patrol working-class areas more so they’re more likely to see crime there >> profiling o Alternative posed: self-reporting crime statistics; both class reported the same amount of crime but the w-c are convicted more; disproportionately targeting certain groups of people Sense and Nonsense About Surveys by Howard Schuman
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5 Humans gather info by asking questions and learn about the environment by examining a small part of it (sampling) Value of a sample determined by size and how the sample was taken (Gallup accurately determined that FDR would win over Roosevelt cuz he used economic strata when figuring out who to ask; Literary Digest just asked wealthy)
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