14 nevertheless this finding is in contrast to the

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14 Nevertheless, this finding is in contrast to the existing literature, which posits that the spring 2006 events would result in greater pan-ethnic sentiment for all Latinos. In contrast to earlier movements, the 2006 immigration marches emphasized an American —rather than pan-ethnic—identity, and I find that changes in self-identification follow the same pattern. The results of the third column support Hypothesis 3, which hypothesized that no change would be seen in the extent to which respondents self-identify with their country of origin. Rather, even as respondents may feel more American, this identity is activated without impacting the extent to which an individual identifies with another group. This relationship is consistent with focus group research conducted by the LNS investigators, who conclude that Latinos do not perceive identity choices to be zero sum (Fraga et al., 2010). Collectively, these findings suggest a high level of stability with respect to national-origin identities across the Latino population. In contrast, for certain subgroups of Latinos, an American identity may be more fluid. The results in columns 4 and 5 mirror the previous findings, with respon- dents interviewed after the protests more likely to express a desire to blend in the U.S. but equally likely to seek the preservation of a distinct culture as those interviewed before these events. 15 More important, the results in Column 4 suggest that respondents are not merely repeating leaders’ rhetoric about Latinos being American. Rather, after the protests, individuals are also more likely to say that Latinos should change in order to do so. Noticeably, the coefficient on female is significant in the first two mod- els. In terms of predicted probabilities, women are 8% less likely than men at UNIV CALIFORNIA SAN DIEGO on September 17, 2016 apr.sagepub.com Downloaded from
310 American Politics Research 41(2) Table 1. Effect of Spring 2006 Protests on Respondent Self-Identification, Full Sample. American Identity Pan-Ethnic Identity Country of Origin “Blend” in the U.S. Maintain Unique Culture (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) Post-Protests 0.19** 0.03 0.06 0.29*** 0.14 (0.07) (0.66) (0.04) (0.08) (0.09) Female 0.40*** 0.21** 0.15* 0.24** 0.33*** (0.07) (0.07) (0.07) (0.07) (0.09) Skin color 0.19 0.07 0.20 0.32* 0.07 (0.16) (0.14) (0.14) (0.14) (0.17) Survey in Spanish 0.94*** 0.37*** 0.01 0.85*** 0.50*** (0.09) (0.10) (0.10) (0.10) (0.12) Age 1.86*** 0.57** 0.48* 1.70*** 0.17 (0.18) (0.19) (0.19) (0.20) (0.23) Years of Education 0.98*** 0.23 0.48 1.07*** 0.21 (0.23) (0.24) (0.26) (0.25) (0.32) Household Income 0.43** 0.23 0.01 0.02 0.21 (0.13) (0.13) (0.14) (0.13) (0.14) Immigrant Generation Newcomer (in US < 5 years) 0.12 0.24* 0.08 0.22 0.19 (0.10) (0.12) (0.13) (0.12) (0.15) First Generation 0.74*** 0.30* 0.22 0.13 0.20 (0.12) (0.13) (0.12) (0.12) (0.14) Second Generation and Above 1.64*** 0.29* 1.07*** 0.46*** 0.08 (0.13) (0.12) (0.11) (0.11) (0.13) Pseudo R 2 0.13 0.01 0.03 0.08 0.02 N 5470 5489 5491 5403 5480 Note: Ordered logistic regression with robust standard errors. The first three dependent variables are the degree to which a respondent self-identifies as American, with a pan-ethnic identity, and with their country of ancestral origin, on a scale of 1 (not at all) to 4 (very strongly). The fourth and fifth dependent variables, opinions about whether Latinos/ Hispanics

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