Mod2LabWorksheet_04152018.docx

Materials sheep heart specimen pig specimen gloves

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Materials Sheep heart specimen Pig specimen Gloves Dissection kits and trays Pre-Lab Evaluation Questions The pre-lab evaluation questions must be answered prior to lab and demonstrated to your lab instructor. You must read through the assigned chapter readings, lab introduction, objectives, overview and procedure to answer these questions. Please cite your work for any reference source you utilize in answering these questions. 1. In your own words, describe the characteristics to the three layers of the heart. Epicardium: Outermost layer of the heart, works with the pericardium to prevent friction and protect the heart. Myocardium: The Thickest, muscular layer of the heart, contracts when excited. Endocardium: Innermost layer (exposed to blood), smooth/ frictionless interior surface, composed of endothelial cells (Betts, 2017). 2. Describe the anatomy and function of the heart valves? What role do the chordae tendineae, and papillary muscles have in association with the heart valves? The mitral and tricuspid valves control blood flow from the atria to the ventricles, the aortic and pulmonic valves control blood flow out of the heart. The papillary muscles attach to the cusps of the atrioventricular valves through the chordae tendinae and prevent prolapse and backflow of these valves by contracting during systole (Betts, 2017). 3. Explain how the intercalated discs and the conduction system of the heart are related. What function does the Sinoatrial Node (pacemaker) have within the heart? Intercalated discs are the portion of the cardiac muscle which allow it contract in a wave like pattern as the electrical impulse passes through the heart. The Sinoatrial Node is the group of cells where the conduction system of the heart creates its own electrical impulse. ICCS pathways ultimately reaches the muscles thus causing contraction (Betts, 2017). 4. In your words, generally describe the flow of blood through the body. Utilize the pulmonary and systemic circuits, the concept of oxygenated and deoxygenated
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blood within your description. Blood enters the heart through the right atria via the inferior and superior vena cava, from there it travels through the tricuspid valve into the right ventricle. Pulmonary Circulation: The blood continues through the Pulmonary valve to the Pulmonary arteries and into the lungs where it breaks down in to smaller arteries until the capillaries of the lungs converge with alveoli to exchange O2 for CO2 through the smallest and thinnest vessels of the body. After gasses are exchanged, the now oxygenated blood is carried away from the lungs back to the heart via pulmonary veins and dump in to the left atria. From there, blood travels through the mitral valve into the Left ventricle before it is ejected through the aortic valve into the body via the aorta. Systemic Circulation: From the aorta, blood splits into the common carotid arteries and descending aorta. The Right brachiocephalic artery and the Left common carotid are responsible for blood flow to the head, neck and superior portion of the body. The descending aorta is responsible for
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