Electronegativity is the ability of an atom to

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Electronegativity is the ability of an atom to attract toward itself the electrons in a chemical bond. Electron Affinity - measurable , Cl is highest Electronegativity - relative , F is highest X ( g) + e - X - ( g)
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15 The Electronegativities of Common Elements
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16 Variation of Electronegativity with Atomic Number
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17 Covalent share e - Polar Covalent partial transfer of e - Ionic transfer e - Increasing difference in electronegativity Classification of bonds by difference in electronegativity Difference Bond Type 0 Covalent 2 Ionic 0 < and <2 Polar Covalent
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18 Classify the following bonds as ionic, polar covalent, or covalent: The bond in CsCl; the bond in H 2 S; and the NN bond in H 2 NNH 2 . Cs – 0.7 Cl – 3.0 3.0 – 0.7 = 2.3 Ionic H – 2.1 S – 2.5 2.5 – 2.1 = 0.4 Polar Covalent N – 3.0 N – 3.0 3.0 – 3.0 = 0 Covalent
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19 1. Draw skeletal structure of compound showing what atoms are bonded to each other. Put least electronegative element in the center. 2. Count total number of valence e - . Add 1 for each negative charge. Subtract 1 for each positive charge. 3. Complete an octet for all atoms except hydrogen 4. If structure contains too many electrons, form double and triple bonds on central atom as needed. Writing Lewis Structures
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20 Write the Lewis structure of nitrogen trifluoride (NF 3 ). Step 1 – N is less electronegative than F, put N in center F N F F Step 2 – Count valence electrons N - 5 (2s 2 2p 3 ) and F - 7 (2s 2 2p 5 ) 5 + (3 x 7) = 26 valence electrons Step 3 – Draw single bonds between N and F atoms and complete octets on N and F atoms. Step 4 - Check, are # of e - in structure equal to number of valence e - ? 3 single bonds (3x2) + 10 lone pairs (10x2) = 26 valence electrons
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21 Write the Lewis structure of the carbonate ion (CO 3 2- ). Step 1 – C is less electronegative than O, put C in center O C O O Step 2 – Count valence electrons C - 4 (2s 2 2p 2 ) and O - 6 (2s 2 2p 4 ) -2 charge – 2e - 4 + (3 x 6) + 2 = 24 valence electrons Step 3 – Draw single bonds between C and O atoms and complete octet on C and O atoms. Step 4 - Check, are # of e - in structure equal to number of valence e - ? 3 single bonds (3x2) + 10 lone pairs (10x2) = 26 valence electrons Step 5 - Too many electrons, form double bond and re-check # of e - 2 single bonds (2x2) = 4 1 double bond = 4 8 lone pairs (8x2) = 16 Total = 24
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22 Two possible skeletal structures of formaldehyde (CH 2 O) H C O H H C O H An atom’s formal charge is the difference between the
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