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Do you think the research in this article was conducted in an ethical manner? Why or why not? In relation to the article, how have ethical considerations in personality psychology research changed over the years?
I believe this study was conducted in an ethical manner because the researchers obtained consentfrom the participants’ legal guardians and everything was done on a voluntary basis. The study remained voluntary and none of the participants were forced to continue participating in the study when they were 21. Article ThreeWhat is the title of the article? Provide a citation for the article in APA format.Paulhus, D., Trapnell, P., & Chen, D. (1999). Birth Order Effects on Personality and Achievement within Families.Psychological Science,10(6), 482-488. Retrieved from What is the purpose of the article and how does the purpose relate to personality development?This article presented studies that were conducted to find how birth order may or may not effect one’s achievements in life and determine one’s personality. What is the hypothesis of the study? In other words, what claims do the authors make in the article?The authors anticipated that first-born children are more conscientious and have higher achievements throughout their lives and the later-born children tend to be more agreeable, liberal, and rebellious.What variables (factors) are being looked at as an influence on personality? How are these factors assessed or measured in the article?
The variables that are being looked at are the number of siblings within each family, the order of birth, and gender. If these variables or the relationship between these variables have been studied before, what have other studies found? This shows historical significance. How does the view of personality in this article compare with historical views of personality? The relationship between these variables has been studied prior to this article. Two men named Ernst and Angst conducted a study that showed no relation between birth order and personality. Another study conducted prior to this article was by Sulloway who concluded in his book Born to Rebelthat “birth order effects derive from a competition among siblings as they fight for a family niche” and not in the parents’ different treatment of children of different birth order, as many previously argued. What type of research design is used in the study? What instruments or measures did the researchers use to collect data?This study used a differential, correlation design. The researchers collected data from four different groups of participants. The first group was students from the University of California. This group was asked to list the birth order of their siblings and themselves using “B” for males and “G” for girls. The students were then asked to identify which sibling was the most scholastically achieving and which sibling was the “rebel” child.