He also transferred government functions to those Filipinos who cooperated with Americancolonial powers. Although the United States promised to grant Philippine independence, thatpromise was deferred until 1946.One of Taft's main goals while President was to further the idea of world peace. Given his judicial sensibilities, he believed that international arbitration was the best means to effectuate the end of war on Earth. As such, he championed several reciprocity and arbitration treaties. In 1910, he convinced congressional Democrats to support a reciprocity treaty with Canada, but the Liberal Canadian government of Sir Wilfrid Laurier that negotiated the treaty was turned out of office in 1911 and the treaty collapsed (a US-Canada reciprocity treaty would not come into effect until 1988). In 1910 and 1911, however, he secured the ratification of arbitration treaties that he had successfully negotiated with Britain and France and thereafter was known as one of the foremost advocates of world peace and arbitration26. What caused theriftbetween Taft and Roosevelt?27. Out the outbreak of World War I who were the Allied powers and who were the Central Powers?The Allied Powers in WWI were Britain, France, Italy, US and Russia. The Central Powers were Germany, Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire (Turkey), and Bulgaria.28. What was the Open Door Policy and who challenged it?Ownership of the Philippine Islands gave the United States a foothold in Asia. In 1894–1895,Japan had waged a successful war against China, and European traders rushed into China tomonopolize local markets and establish their own spheres of influence. Secretary of State John Hay issued a communication called the Open Door note in thesummer of 1899; in it, he urged the imperial powers to respect the trading interests of all nations. The Europeans were reluctant to cede anything to theirinternational competitors, and only Italy agreed to the terms of Hay’s policy. But in 1900, the Boxer uprising in China prompted cooperation between thewestern powers. The Boxers, Chinese ultranationalists, killed 200 foreign missionaries and other whites in an effort to purge China of outsiders. Together,the Germans, Japanese, British, French, and Americans sent 18,000 troops to quell the revolt. The United States and European nations continued to compete for the China market well into the twentieth century.Statement of U.S. foreign policy toward China. Issued by U.S. secretary of state John Hay (1899), the statement reaffirmed the principle that all countries should have equal access to any Chinese port open to trade. The U.S. sent notes to Britain, Germany, France, Italy, Japan, and Russia explaining the policy to prevent them from establishing separate spheres of influence in China. Their replies were evasive, but the U.S. considered them acceptances of the policy. Japan's violation of the policy in 1937 led the U.S. to impose an oil embargo. The policy was discontinued with the communist takeover of China in 1949.