Theory of mind understanding that other people

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theory of mind; understanding that other people experience private knowledge and mental states Parents and teachers play a role in the development of executive function Training to improve working memory, aerobic exercise, and mindfulness training increase a child’s executive function 18
Revisionist Views of Adolescent and Adult Cognition Adolescent egocentrism involves the belief that others are as preoccupied with the adolescent as he or she is, one is unique, and one is invincible Sense of invincibility is most dangerous aspect of adolescent egocentrism o May lead to drag racing, drug use, and unsafe sex Piaget underestimated infant cognition and may have overestimated adolescents and adults’ cognitive achievements Cognitive Processes in Adulthood Each stage of cognitive development entails a way of thinking that is qualitatively different from the stage before Piaget believed meaningful cognitive development ceases after the individual reaches the formal operational stage Cognition in Early Adulthood Gisela Vief proposed the increasing complexity of cultures in the past century has generated a greater need for reflective more complex thinking that takes into account the changing nature of knowledge and the kinds of challenges contemporary thinkers face o Key aspects of cognitive development for young adults include deciding on a certain worldview or philosophy of life, recognizing the worldview is subjective, and understanding diverse worldviews should be acknowledged o Only some individuals attain the highest level of thinking Cognition in Middle Adulthood Highest level of functioning for 4 of the 6 intellectual abilities occurred in middle adulthood o 2 of the 6 abilities declined in middle age K. Warner Schaie concluded that middle adulthood is the period when people reach their peak for a range of intellectual skills Cognition in Late Adulthood 19
When the speed of processing information is involved older adults do not perform as good as their counterparts Decline in speed of processing is apparent in middle aged adults and becomes more pronounced in older adults In the area of memory involving knowledge of the world older adults take longer then younger adults to remember the information but are often able to retrieve it Aspects of cognition might improve with age Wisdom- Expert knowledge about the practical aspects of life May increase with age because of the buildup of life experiences Not every older person has wisdom Some young people are wise beyond their years Socioemotional Development Socioemotional processes involve changes in an individual’s social relationships, emotional life, and personal qualities Socioemotional Development in Infancy Humans differ from one another in terms of their emotional demeanor from the beginning of life Infant temperament and attachment are present early in life Temperament Temperament - Refers to an individual’s behavioral style and characteristic ways of responding

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