Fungi increase surface area with which water and

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Fungi increase surface area with which water and nutrients can be taken up Ectomycorrhizal fungi form sheaths over the roots of manyn woody plants and produce fruiting bodies aboveground Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi o Make spores underground Endophytic mycorrhizal fungi in the root cortex Epiphytes Grow on other plants, not much roots Get nutrients and water from air/rain Many are CAM plants, need to conserve water (no roots) Staghorn fern, Spanish moss Parasitic plants Plants that get nutrients from other plants are parasites, not epiphytes Hemiparasites: making own carbon but getting nutrients from other tree o Mistletoe, vascular tissue connected to hosts Holoparasites: get all nutrition from other plant o Indian pipes, all white because don’t need chlorophyll Insectivorous: not much of a root system, gets nutrients from animals o Pitcher plants are insectivorous Plant growth Cell wall forms first, then cells expand Turgor pressure helps with growth Orientation of microfibrils determines which direction cell expands in Meristems
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o Apical and axillary meristems- primary growth o Lateral meristems- secondary growth (fatness) o Give rise to initials and derivatives I-> D,I->D,D,I Cell capable of dividing is initial cell Plane and Symmetry of Cell Division o The plane (direction) and symmetry of cell division are important in determining plant form o Consider parallel planes of division o Consider divisions perpendicular to the first division o Primary growth produces the primary plant body, the parts of the root and shoot systems produced by apical meristems Embryogenesis o Radicle protects young plant erupting from soil o Eudicotyledons Epicotyl is above cotyledon, hypocotyl below cotyledon The hook is helpful to prevent seeds from harm o Monocot Coleoptile Root growth o Apical meristem creates longer root o Primary growth of roots Root tip is covered by a root cap Growth in three zones of cells Cell division Elongation Maturation (forming of rot hairs) Branching of roots is primary growth
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Lateral roots arise from within the pericycle, the outermost cell layer in the vascular cylinder, just inside the endodermis Branch roots are still primary growth, they arise from the pericycle Primary Growth of Shoots o A shoot apical meristem dome-shaped mass at the shoot tip o Leaves develop from leaf primordial o Axillary buds develop from meristematic cells at bases of leaf primordial o Shoot apical meristem is a site of primary growth Secondary Growth (in eudicotyledons) o Lateral meristems add thickness, secondary growth Vascular Cambium: adds secondary vascular tissue which accumulates as wood (phloem gets squished) Cells (xylem) get smaller near end of the year-> growth rings Cork cambium Periderm: cork cambium + layers of cork cells it produces Bark: all the tissues external to the vascular cambium
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