By 1891 Massachusetts had the first statewide probation program Gaines Miller

By 1891 massachusetts had the first statewide

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probation officers. By 1891, Massachusetts had the first statewide probation program (Gaines & Miller, 2010). Sentencing Choices and Probation Traditional probation is not the only choice a sentencing judge has. Instead of probation the judge could impose a suspended imposition of sentence, or a combination of the two. A suspended imposition of sentence places no conditions or supervision of the offender. It merely puts off sentencing for some future date, and if the offender has stayed out of trouble during that time, the judge will not imposed the sentence normally associated with that offense. If the offender does not stay out of trouble the judge will revoke and impose the suspended sentence. A judge can also combine probation with limited incarceration. Some examples include shock incarceration (a period of initial incarceration followed by probation) and intermittent incarceration (where the offender spends part of the time in the community and part of the time – like weekends- in a correctional facility) Who is eligible for Probation? It depends on the state and the judge. But generally, research has shown that offenders are most likely to be denied probation if they: 1. Are convicted on multiple charges; 2. Were on probation or parole at the time of arrest; 3. Have two or more prior convictions; 4. Are addicted to narcotics; 5. Seriously injured a victim; 6. Used a weapon in the commission of their crime. About half of all probationers have been convicted of misdemeanors and half felonies. Usually felony probation is reserved for property crime and drug offenses (Gaines & Miller, 2010). Potential Ethical Concerns o Are we using probation because it is the best fit for the offender, or is it just because of financial constraints and available jail space? Do we have more violent persons on probation? Is this fair to the general public? Are the risks too great? The job has seen considerable changes over the past thirty years. More and more violent offenders and those convicted of more serious crimes are being placed on probation because of prison overcrowding and the advent of means of more restrictive and intensive supervision. According to the National Institute of
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Corrections, more than half of the POs who directly supervise offenders have be victims of some form of hazardous incident that has endangered their safety. (Gaines & Miller, 2010). More Pos desire to carry guns for their protection. In the federal probation system, 85 of the 94 judicial districts permit PO’s to carry firearms after receiving firearms training. Thirty four states also have allowed this. o Who tends to get probation as an option? Those who can afford an attorney to push for the option Those with close family ties Those who are close to the services which are part of the conditions of probation Those with a job Disparate effects on Native Alaskans and other minorities.
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  • Spring '18
  • Gary Copus
  • The Road, PROBATION OFFICER, Parole, parole board

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