Categories are all comprised of prokaryotic

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Chapter 19 / Exercise 19-72
General, Organic, & Biological Chemistry
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categories are all comprised of prokaryotic microorganisms lacking a membrane­bound nucleus. The distinction made between prokaryotes (Bacteria vs Archaea) is based mainly on the differences in cellular composition and is briefly described below. The Eukarya (eukaryotic) classification remained unchanged and still consists of all nuclear bound microorganisms. Bacteria (sometimes referred to as Eubacteria, meaning ‘true bacteria’) constitute a large cohort of prokaryotic microorganisms. They can be considered the every­day bacteria and are common in human daily life. They have a variety of shapes by which they can be further classified. Bacteria display many distinct morphologies (shapes), the most common include: coccus (round/spherical), bacillus (rod), vibrio (curved rod) or spirillum (spiral/corkscrew). Aside from the shape of the bacterial cell, one should also note the cellular organization—cells may appear as isolated (individual) cells or appear in chains or even clusters. Certain bacteria may also demonstrate motility (swimming movements) while others do not. Examples of Eubacteria are: streptococcus, which have the appearance of round chains; E. coli, which have the appearance of rod­shaped, and mycobacterium tuberculosis, a unicellular bacterium. Archaea , the other prokaryotic class of microorganisms, have similar characteristics and shapes as Bacteria (Eubacteria) and yet remain genetically and compositionally distinct. Most notably, they are able to survive in extremely harsh environmental conditions such as high salt levels, acid conditions, high temperatures and oxygen­poor conditions. As such, archaeons may also be referred to as extremophiles, based on the ‘extreme’ or atypical environments in which they can be found. Eukarya is a diverse category and consists of a wide range of microorganism. Due to high diversity and complexity, eukaryotes can be subdivided into multiple categories, a process which is still debated today. However, the unifying characteristic of all eukaryotic cells is the presence of a membrane­bound nuclear region within the cell. For the purposes of this course, eukaryotic microorganisms will be classified as either: Animalia, Plantae, Fungi and Protista. Animalia consists of multicellular eukaryotic organisms and as the name suggests, includes animals, as well as humans (and their cells) in their classification. All microorganisms in this category are heterotrophic , meaning they are incapable of producing their own energy and thereby must absorb (consume) nutrients from the environment and have the general characteristic of motility (the ability to move). Plantae are also multicellular eukaryotes but unlike Animalia, can obtain most of their energy from sunlight via
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General, Organic, & Biological Chemistry
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Chapter 19 / Exercise 19-72
General, Organic, & Biological Chemistry
Stoker
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9/9/2018 NursingABC - Module 6/12 photosynthesis—a process that converts light energy (sunlight) into chemical energy (sugars) within the organism and fuels its activities. Fungi can be either multicellular or unicellular microorganisms and like Animalia, are heterotrophic. A defining

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