CH.3 & 4 Concepts Questions.docx

11 what is the difference between conduction and

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11. What is the difference between conduction and convection ? In convection, molecules move from one place to another; in conduction, they vibrate back and forth and undergo molecular collisions. 12. How and why does conduction influence the temperature of air above a warm surface? Above a cold surface?
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Air is a poor conductor, so only the air layer touching the ground is warmed. In contrast, when the ground surface is very cold, heat can transfer from the air to the ground through conduction. 13. Describe the pattern of air movement within a convection cell . The warm air expands and moves upward in the direction of lower pressure. Cooler surrounding air then moves in from the sides, and air from above sinks down to replace it, thus establishing a convective circulation system. 14. Briefly describe the process of advection in the atmosphere. In the atmosphere, wind may transfer warm or cool air horizontally from one place to another through the process of advection. 15. How does expansion lead to adiabatic cooling , and compression to adiabatic warming ? A molecule during expansion reduces their average kinetic energy, so the temperature decreases. Conversely the work done on the molecules by compression increases their average kinetic energy, so the temperature increases even though no energy was added from external sources. 16. What happens to the temperature of rising air? Of descending air? Why? Rising air expands and cools adiabatically; descending air compresses and warms adiabatically. 17. What is latent heat ? Is any phase change that involves an exchange of energy for example ice changes to liquid water, liquid water changes to water vapor and so forth. Earth’s Solar Radiation Budget 18. Approximately what percentage of incoming solar radiation is reflected and scattered away from Earth? About 31 units of total insolation are scattered back into space by the atmosphere and the surface. 31% 19. Approximately what percentage of incoming solar radiation is transmitted through the atmosphere and absorbed by the surface? Nearly 45% of the incoming radiation is absorbed by the surface. 20. Briefly describe how the troposphere is warmed by the Sun. The sun warms up the surface and the surface transfer energy to the atmosphere. Variations in Insolation by Latitude and Season 21. What is meant by the angle of incidence of the Sun’s rays? That is the angle at which rays from the Sun strike Earth’s surface. 22. Explain the reasons for the unequal warming (by latitude) of Earth by the Sun. The angle at which solar rays hit Earth’s surface varies with latitude. The higher the angle, the more concentrated the energy and therefore more effective the warming. Land and Water Temperature Contrasts 23. How does the specific heat of a substance affect its rate of warming? It takes more amounts of energy to show the same temperature of others. 24. Explain why land warms faster and to a greater extent than water. On land, all of the warming is concentrated at the surface and maximum temperatures can be much higher. In water the solar energy is absorbed and spreads out the warming.
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25. Explain why land cools faster and to a greater extent than water.
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