This system is also related to emotional responses such as sweating and crying

This system is also related to emotional responses

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This system is also related to emotional responses such as sweating and crying. The autonomic system can then be further subdivided into two subsystems known as the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems. . Sympathetic Nervous System: The sympathetic system controls the body’s response to emergencies. When this system is aroused, a number of things begin to occur: your heart and breathing rates increase, digestion slows or stops, the pupils dilate and you begin to sweat. Known as the fight- or-flight response , this system responds by preparing your body to either fight the danger or flee. . Parasympathetic Nervous System: The parasympathetic nervous system functions to counter the sympathetic system. After a crisis or danger has passed, this system helps to calm the body. Heart and breathing rates slow, digestion resumes, pupil contract and sweating ceases.
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The Endocrine System As noted earlier, the endocrine system is not a part of the nervous system, but it is still essential to communication throughout the body. This system is composed of glands, which secrete chemical messengers known as hormones. Hormones are carried in the bloodstream to specific areas of the body, including organs and body tissues. Some of the most important endocrine glands include the pineal gland, the hypothalamus, the pituitary gland, the thyroid, the ovaries and the testes. Each of these glands works in a number of unique ways in specific areas of the body. So how are the endocrine and nervous system linked? The brain structure known as the hypothalamus connects these two important communication systems. The hypothalamus is a tiny collection of nuclei that is responsible for controlling an astonishing amount of behavior. Located at the base of the forebrain, the hypothalamus regulates basic needs such as sleep, hunger, thirst and sex in addition to emotional and stress responses. The hypothalamus also controls the pituitary glands, which then controls the release of hormones from other glands in the endocrine system. The regulation of Blood Pressure: Basically when the blood pressure decreases, the baroreceptors in the carotid sinuses and aortic arch are inhibited. The impulses from the baroreceptors stimulate the Sympathetic Nervous System activity and it consequently result in inhibition of the Parasympathetic Nervous System activity. The Sympathetic stimulation promotes the release of Renin Hormone by the granular cells in the Kidney. Renin inturn act as an enzyme and catalyse the conversion of Angiotensinogen to Angiotensin I. The Angiotensin I consequently is converted to Angiotensin II by Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE).
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