The answer is that the decision so arrived at must be

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our purpose? The answer is that the decision so arrived at must be all lasting decision and should square the problem for now and for the time to come. By way of summary, we have proposed the following five phases as instrumental to problem solving and decision making, and thereby proving that critical thinking is not only instrumental to problem solving but also that its tentacles extend beyond the domain of decision analysis. 1. Recognition and definition of the problem. 2. Gathering information. 3. Forming Tentative Conclusions. 4. Testing Tentative Conclusions. 5. Evaluation and Decision. With the above observations, let me now turn my attention to the examination of the types of decisions and factors that influence their nature. Some people prefer making decisions simply by intuition. They trust their “gut feelings” more than they trust the analytical methods that require a systematic and mathematical comparative assessment of competing actions that satisfy multiple criteria. Russo and Schoemaker 1989, Schick and Vaughn 1999 encourage people to avoid the use of intuition and instead to base their judgements and decisions on reasoning strategies that are less likely to lead to common errors in reasoning. From this perspective, decision-making should be a matter of calculation, not intuition. Intuition-based decision-making can lead to many problems, but also calculation-based decision making of the sort recommended by psychologists and economists has some serious pitfalls. A synthesis of these two models has been developed recently to a theory of emotional coherence. Understanding decision making in terms of emotional coherence enables us to appreciate the merits of both intuition and calculation as contributors to effective practical reasoning. DECISION AS INTUITION Suppose you are a student trying to decide whether to study liberal arts, in which you have a strong interest or a subject such as economics or computer science that may lead to a more lucrative career. To make this decision intuitively is just to go with the option supported by your emotional reactions to the two alternatives. In the end, the intuitive decision makers choose an option based on what their emotional reactions tell them is preferable. The advantage of intuitive decision-making is speed. An emotional reaction can be
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immediate and lead directly to a decision. If your choice is between vanilla and chocolate ice cream, it would be pointless to spend a lot of time deliberating about the advantages and disadvantages of the two flavours. Instead, an emotional reaction such as “chocolate-yum!” can make for a quick appropriate decision. Another advantage is that basing your decisions on emotions helps to ensure that the decisions take into account what you really care about.
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