refining of petroleum. Molybdenum’s primary use is that of alloying steel, when added to steel in concentrations of .25% and 8% molybdenum forms high strength steels that can withstand pressures of up to 300,000 pounds per square inch. Molybdenum also improves the strength of steel at high temperatures along with this when alloyed with nickel molybdenum form heat and corrosion resistant materials used in the chemical industry. Molybdenum disulphide (MoS 2 ) is a molybdenum compound used as a high temperature lubricant, Molybdenum trioxide (MoO 3 ) is another molybdenum compound and it is used to adhere enamels to metals, other noteworthy molybdenum compounds are molybdic acid (H 2 MoO 4 ), molybdenum hexafluoride (MoF 6 ) and molybdenum phosphide (MoP 2 ) each with their own unique / interesting characteristics, properties and uses. In 2008, the USGS reported reserves of 2.7 million metric tons of molybdenum in the United States and an estimated 6 million tons of molybdenum reserves in the rest of the world. The leading producers in 2008 were the United States, China, Chile, Peru, and Canada. USGS 2008 - [“Molybdenum’s important alloying properties have given it a significant role in modern industrial technology, which increasingly requires materials that are functional under high stress, expanded temperature ranges, and highly corrosive environments. Without molybdenum as an alloying metal, the super strength steel used in heavy construction (such as in skyscrapers and bridges) would be costlier; in some
instances, the increased weight of alternative materials with equivalent strengths would render construction unmanageable or even impossible.”] That control Molybdenum is an essential trace element for animals and plants. As with selenium , too much of it is toxic, too little of it is fatal. In nitrogen fixing bacteria, molybdenum is a vital component of the nitrogenase enzyme which allows conversion of nitrogen gas in air into nitrates vital for plant growth. Molybdenum is also present in 20 or so enzymes needed in animals’ metabolisms.
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