DSST Fundamentals of counseling study sheet

Schools worked as a railroad engineer and passed the

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schools, worked as a railroad engineer, and passed the state bar examination for lawyers in Massachusetts in 1881. His university occupations included teaching at Boston University School of Law and at Kansas State Agricultural College (See Kansas State University ), and serving as dean of the extension division of Ruskin College in Trenton, Missouri . However, Parsons is best known for his interests in helping individuals make occupational and career choices (Zunker, 2002). Theories & Concepts to Know:
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Person-centered Therapy (PCT) is also known as person-centered psychotherapy, client-centered therapy and Rogerian psychotherapy. PCT is a form of talk- psychotherapy developed by psychologist Carl Rogers in the 1940s and 1950s. It's one of the most widely used models in mental health and psychotherapy. In this technique, therapists create a comfortable, non-judgemental environment by demonstrating congruence (genuineness), empathy , and unconditional positive regard toward their patients while using a non-directive approach. This aids patients in finding their own solutions to their problems. Core Concepts Rogers (1957; 1959) stated that there are six necessary and sufficient conditions required for therapeutic change: 1. Therapist-Client Psychological Contact: a relationship between client and therapist must exist, and it must be a relationship in which each person's perception of the other is important. 2. Client incongruence, or Vulnerability: that incongruence exists between the client's experience and awareness. Furthermore, the client is vulnerable to anxiety which motivates them to stay in the relationship. 3. Therapist Congruence, or Genuineness: the therapist is congruent within the therapeutic relationship. The therapist is deeply involved his or herself - they are not "acting" - and they can draw on their own experiences (self-disclosure) to facilitate the relationship. 4. Therapist Unconditional Positive Regard (UPR): the therapist accepts the client unconditionally, without judgment, disapproval or approval. This facilitates increased self-regard in the client, as they can begin to become aware of experiences in which their view of self-worth was distorted by others. 5. Therapist Empathic understanding: the therapist experiences an empathic understanding of the client's internal frame of reference. Accurate empathy on the part of the therapist helps the client believe the therapist's unconditional love for them. 6. Client Perception: that the client perceives, to at least a minimal degree, the therapist's UPR and empathic understanding Adlerian Counseling Pertaining to the theory and practice of Alfred Adler (1870 - 1937), whose school of psychoanalysis is called Individual Psychology . Central to the Adlerian approach is to see the personality as a whole and not as the mere net result of component forces. Thus the term individual ( indivisible ) psychology.
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