The research specifically targeted urban migrants as discussed earlier so as to

The research specifically targeted urban migrants as

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The research specifically targeted urban migrants, as discussed earlier, so as to understand who comes to urban centres, why and whether they intend to stay or not. In Puntland, internal migrants comprised half of all migrants, with 36±6% returnees who became internal migrants after their return – signalling instances of secondary migration and displacement. Less than one fourth of returnees in Puntland remained in their principal place of resettlement. In Somaliland, internal migrants comprised just over a third of migrants, but the proportion of internal migrant returnees was the same as in Puntland. Somaliland’s capital harbours relatively few youth who are internal migrants. Returnees (settled and displaced) comprised three quarters of its migrant population. And while the proportion of returnees who had migrated inside Somalia is more than 5 out of 6 in Burao, it is less than two thirds in Bossasso, Puntland. 14 Samuel Hall, Market Opportunity Mapping in Somalia – A Value-Chain Analysis and rapid market assessment in Baidoa and Beletweyne Provinces , for the ILO, 2014, p. 6.
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22 IOM Somalia - Research on Youth, Employment and Migration Figure 1 – Migration history of migrant youth interviewed In Hargeysa, where the government is located, migrants were more likely to have lived abroad – suggesting some truth to claims that returning members of the diaspora make up a material portion of the government there. It was often suggested that i) the current government prefers diaspora ministers, ii) even Director Generals are mainly diaspora, and iii) well-paid jobs at NGOs and the United Nations (UN) as well as advisory positions in governmental institutions are given to returning diaspora. One of the reasons given for this phenomenon was that a good command of English was required for jobs at NGOs. Figure 2 – Respondent migration status by city (migrants only) RETURNEES There is a saying: “today he is an irregular migrant, tomorrow he is diaspora and the day after tomorrow he is a minister”. Also DGs are mainly from the diaspora.” (SONYO, Hargeysa) This observation was made repeatedly by focus group participants and key informants; but it is based on two prejudices: i) a significant number of returnees are thought to come back from Europe, the U.S.A., and other developed countries; and ii) returnees are considered better off than host community members. These two assumptions will be analysed below – as they play a key role in driving migration; yet this is not the reality. The reality of return 1: Returnees are not necessarily better off One case study participant in Burao noted that while “migrants, especially women, are less likely to find employment […] this only applies to internal migrants as those coming from Europe often have better chances of employment compared to locals”. The tendency towards preferring employees educated abroad in the public sector was confirmed by the quantitative data, as public employers were more likely to have a higher percentage of employees having studied abroad, particularly in Puntland.
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  • Fall '17
  • IOM, Human migration, Somaliland

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