Subversion In its broadest sense subversion d\u00e9tournement is an all embracing

Subversion in its broadest sense subversion

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everyday roles would be destroyed, and everything would be seen as a game to be played. Subversion . In its broadest sense, subversion ( détournement ) is an all-embracing reinsertion of things into play.” 105 101 Ibid., pp.10-11. 102 Ibid., p.11. 103 Ibid., p.14. 104 Vaneigem, p.263. 105 Vaneigem, p.264. 39
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The use of this final form of détournement could be seen in the early stages of student unrest. Many of the students who interrupted lectures, such as René Riesel, vocalized their familiarity with the Situationist theory. And Debord’s and Wolman’s essay was created in 1956, giving it more than ten years to reach the hands of radical students. The radicals who interrupted their professors’ lectures could be seen as simply trying to cause unrest, or their actions can be interpreted as a form of détournement. They were attempting to change the foundational element of the class by destroying the authority of the professors. The presence of détournement would continue to be seen in the rhetoric of 1968. In the Slogans to be circulated by any Means, released by the CMDO in May of that year, one slogan in particular shows the use of détournement: “Mankind will not be happy until the last bureaucrat has been hanged with the guts of the last capitalist.” 106 This slogan was also written by Réne Vienet on a painting in the staircase of the Sorbonne during the opening days of the Occupation. The slogan is a perfect example of deceptive détournement because it makes an allusion to a significant work from the past. It took a slogan from the French Revolution of 1789 and augmented it to the purposes of the current revolt. The original slogan was created by Jean Meslier and read “Mankind will not be happy until the last aristocrat has been hung with the guts of the last priest.” By altering this slogan, an attempt was made to connect aristocrats and clergy of the past with contemporary bureaucrats and capitalists. Furthermore, the détournement of Meslier’s slogan is an attempt to revitalize in the protesters of May and the anger past revolutionaries of France had towards those in power. 106 Viénet, p.51. 40
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Other slogans that were painted on the walls of Paris made use of both détournement and a Situationist style, a mix of sexuality and rebelliousness. “The more I make love, the more I feel like making the Revolution; the more I make Revolution, the more I feel like making love.” 107 This example of graffiti shows the influence of sexuality in the revolutionary thought of May. As discussed, the Situationists viewed total sexual freedom and revolution as quintessentially the same. Every sexual act, especially those that broke with social norms, was a revolutionary one. Other propagated slogans were more explicitly sexual: “Come without obstacles,” and “I came in the cobblestones.” 108 The last slogan shows the use of sexuality, violence and détournement. The slogan emphasizes the excitement that one protester felt when he picked up a cobblestone to take part in the revolt. Paved streets, symbols of an affluent society the students had turned against, were now symbols of revolution. Cobblestones became a symbolic weapon of the protesters due to their abundance and availability. This symbol was used in conjunction
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