I have oversimplified this discussion of the various

This preview shows page 14 - 16 out of 26 pages.

I have oversimplified this discussion of the various psychological approaches in several ways. In particular, biological psychology, cognitive psy- chology, social psychology, and the other fields overlap significantly. Nearly all psychologists combine insights and information gained from several approaches. Many like to hyphenate their self-description to emphasize the overlap. For ex- ample, “I’m a social-developmental-cognitive neu- roscientist.” As we proceed through this book, we shall consider one type of behavior at a time and, gener- ally, one approach at a time. That is simply a neces- sity; we cannot talk intelligently about many topics at once. But bear in mind that all these processes do ultimately fit together. What you do at any given moment depends on a great many influences. 1.1 module chapter one what is psychology? ±´ ED: Set bold correct? 10916_01_Ch01_001-026.indd 14 6/4/09 8:03:03 AM
SUMMARY The page number after an item indicates where the topic is first discussed. What is psychology? Psychology is the sys- tematic study of behavior and experience. Psychologists deal with both theoretical and practical questions. (page •) Three general themes. Almost any statement in psychology depends on many factors, and few statements apply to everyone all the time. Research progress depends on good measurement. Some conclusions in psychol- ogy are based on stronger evidence than others. (page •) Determinism–free will. Determinism is the view that everything that occurs, including human behavior, has a physical cause. This view is difficult to reconcile with the convic- tion that humans have free will—that we de- liberately, consciously decide what to do. (page •) Mind–brain. The mind–brain problem is the question of how conscious experience relates to the activity of the brain. (page •) Nature–nurture. Behavior depends on both nature (heredity) and nurture (environ- ment). The relative contributions of nature and nurture vary from one behavior to an- other. (page •) Psychology and psychiatry. Clinical psychol- ogists have a PhD, PsyD, or master’s degree. Psychiatrists are medical doctors. Both clini- cal psychologists and psychiatrists treat people with emotional problems, but psy- chiatrists can prescribe drugs and other medical treatments, whereas in most states, psychologists cannot. Counseling psycholo- gists help people deal with difficult deci- sions, and they less often deal with serious disorders. (page ••) Service providers to organizations. Nonclini- cal fields of application include industrial/ organizational psychology, human factors, and school psychology. (page ••) Research fields in psychology. Psychology as an academic field has many subfields, includ- ing biological psychology, learning and moti- vation, cognitive psychology, developmental psychology, and social psychology. (page ••) Job prospects. People with a bachelor’s degree in psychology enter a wide variety of careers or continue their education in professional

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture