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Black holes in space a black hole is created by the

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black holes in space. A black holeis createdby the collapse of a dead star into a point perhaps nolarger than a marble. So much matter compressed into so little volume changes the fabric of spacearound it in puzzling ways.The second passage reads more coherently because the concept introduced by each new sentence seems tofollow from the previous sentence. This technique is called “old-to-new” and is one of the most importantprinciples of a cohesive writing style. The principles of old-to-new are:1.Begin your sentences with information familiar to your readers.2.End your sentences with information your readers cannot anticipate.CoherenceHowever, writing can have a cohesive “flow” and be almost indecipherable. Consider the followingpassage:Saner, Wisconsin, is the snowmobile capital of the world. The buzzing of snowmobileengines fills the air, and their tanklike tracks crisscross the snow. The snow reminds meof Mom’s mashed potatoes, covered with furows I would draw with my fork. Mom’smashed potatoes usually made me sick, that’s why I play with them. I like to make a holein the middle of the potatoes and fill it with melted butter. This behavior has been thesubject of long chats between me and my analyst.This passage is cohesive, moving from Saner to snowmobiles to snow to Mom’s mashed potatoes tobehavior, but it certainly is not coherent.To understand coherence we need to consider how readers make sense out of larger groupings of sentences.Readers feel a passage is coherent when the writer helps them accomplish two tasks:1.Identify the topics (what the sentence is about) of individual sentences quickly.Garrett—Notes to Williams’Style
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Business English
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2.Recognize how the topics form a connected set of ideas.Readers want to know what a sentence is about, its topic. However, this is not always easy to find. Considerthe following sentences. What are the topics?1.And therefore, politically speaking, in Eastern states since 1980, acid rain has become a seriousproblem.2.International cooperation is still the goal of most countries.3.It is impossible for your claims to be proved conclusively.4.In regard to these questions, I believe there is a need for more research.5.It is likely that our proposals will be accepted.6.Results like these no one could have predicted.Topic refers not to the grammatical subject of a sentence, but to its “psychological” subject, and we expectto find the topic in the first few words of the sentence. Readers are more comfortable with these earlytopics because it helps them understand what the sentence is about. More important, readers depend onseeing in a sequence of topics (in a sequence of sentences) what the whole passage is about.Combining Cohesion and CoherenceIf you begin sentences and even clauses with information familiar to your readers, with phrases that areshort, simple, and familiar, your readers are more likely to think you can write clearly and coherently. Andno two units of information are shorter and simpler than the subject of a sentence and that subject’s specificactions as a verb.

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Term
Spring
Professor
jones
Tags
Style, Grammar, Passive voice, English passive voice, Joseph M Williams
We have textbook solutions for you!
The document you are viewing contains questions related to this textbook.
Business English
The document you are viewing contains questions related to this textbook.
Chapter 9 / Exercise 7
Business English
Guffey/Seefer
Expert Verified

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