religions of the world all notes from test 1 to test 3

Elizabeth boleyns daughter became queen after marys

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Elizabeth (Boleyn’s daughter) became queen after Mary’s death She was Protestant  Calvinism  Primary reformer—John Calvin 1520s-1560s reformation movement in Switzerland gained members during Marian exile took Luther further totally human depravity  Predestinations—God has preordained who is damned and saved and there’s nothing we can do about it  Jacob Arminius challenged this view  Argued Jesus’ death can provide everyone with salvation Summary Salvation through… Catholics Faith and catholic works Luther Faith alone Calvin Divine grace Arminius Faith and moral life
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Religions of the World TEST 3 18:48 Counter Reformation Began with Council of Trent (1545-63) Made some reforms and reaffirmed some issues  Addressed corruption Reaffirmed: salvation through faiths and works, transubstantiation, veneration of saints, authority of  priests, etc.  Rise of new religious orders—Jesuits and Ursulines Vatican II (1962-1965) Called by John XXIII Interdenominational/ interfaith focus  More lay involvement  Use of vernacular  Many expected additional reforms  Islam 3 rd  of the Abrahamic traditions (4 TH  religion of the Middle East) faith of the prophets  “islam” means “submission” islam vs Islam; muslim vs Muslim lower case is one is submitting to God’s will and as you grow you either continue to submit  become a Muslim by taking the shahadah with 2 muslim witnesses Pre-Islamic Historical Context Monotheistic influences Religion was polytheistic and animistic  Mecca was a religious center The Ka’ba was an important shrine 
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Religions of the World TEST 3 18:48 Prophet vs Messenger Allah sent 124,000 prophets from Adam—Muhammad A prophet  is sent with a message to a specific people at a specific time  A messenger  is sent to a specific community, but his message is universally binding, sacred law Ex: the law given to Moses All messengers are prophets, but not all prophets are messengers Muhammad was a messenger Origins  Muhammad— Born in Mecca ~570CE Family was influential, but he was an orphan Traveled with caravans When into seclusion once a year 610 during Ramadan had a vision of the angel Gabriel began receiving the Qur’an (for 22 years) memorized by followers 622 Muhammad askd to settle a dispute in a city north of Mecca became known as Medina, “the city of the Prophet” first Islamic community the Covenant of Medina  declated a Muslim commonwealth Jews had religious freedom assuming they would support the state—did not last  624—Battle of Badr-- ~300 Muslims defeated ~1000 Meccans  625 Meccans sent another army and won 627 Battle of Trench—Muslims won
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Religions of the World TEST 3 18:48 629—Muhammad led an army to Mecca, but they entered freely 
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