100%(1)1 out of 1 people found this document helpful
This preview shows page 6 - 9 out of 21 pages.
Breaks down a variety of small sugars that produce the gas from beans Starch:Other name: amyloseBroken down by enzyme called amylaseAmylopectin = starch like molecule, easier to digest Amylase: produced in pancreas and salivary glands If you chew a piece of bread long enough it will start to taste sweet (the amylase in your saliva will break it down into glucose) Cellulose:Animals like cows have the enzyme to break down cellulose (like hay) to digest it – we don’t, so we can’t digest it Cellulose vs. starch: different structure, just a subtle difference in the linking of the glucose molecules
Fiber:Cellulose, hemicellulose, pectin, and lignin are all fiber like Fiber has been linked to a variety of contradictory conditions:oConstipationoDiarrheaoDiverticulosisoCancer?oHeat disease? As a consequence, Metamucil is a popular product for people who don’t consume enough fiberSugars and what they do In the body:Good News for Fructose:1.Low glycemic index – does not cause blood sugar to rise as much as sucrose thus thought to be a good substitute for sucrose2.Small amounts in food is ok Bad News – Background:Too much at once is not good and the modern diet can have ~10%When glucose enters the bloodstream, insulin regulates it but fructose is processed in the liver and if there is too much, it makes fats1.Too much fat in the blood is a risk factor for heart disease2.Fructose circumvents the appetite signaling systems, so being “filled up” isnot triggered as well 3.Some evidence is accumulating that excess fructose causes insulin resistance leading to type 2 diabetes4.Fructose promotes AGEs (next topic) more than glucose
Comparison of the fructose and glucose composition of caloric sweeteners:Apple juice and agave nectar and pear juice is significantly fructose Sucrose issuesGlycation:oCarbon-oxygen double bond in a sugar and the amine end of an amino acid (NH2 group)oWhen you have these agacent, you have the agents of water, and they will engage in an unnatural binding by coupling the amino acid to the sugaroThis isn’t cancerous and not a huge problemoCalled the Maillard reaction – engagement of protein and carbohydrates in such that if you heat it, water is given offoEx: browning of bread (lost water) oCalled the amidori productoCan engage in the water loss reaction with another chain – 2 protein chains connected to a sugar molecules = advanced glycation end productsoAGEs oContribute to the body: sugar cataracts o