Remote Sensing - a tool for environmental observation

Examples are the earlybird and earthwatch satellites

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the next few years. Examples are the EarlyBird and EarthWatch satellites by the EarthWatch Company. These image approach the level of detail and the quality of aerial photographs although the images are acquired form an orbit at 680 km. Additional information is available on IKONOS (panchromatic and multi-spectral mode): IKONOS- Panchromatic: Spatial Resolution: 1. 450 – 900 nm 1 by 1 meter Ikonos XS: 4 by 4 meter 1. 450 – 520 nm (Blue) 2. 520 – 600 nm (Green) Orbit: 3. 630 –690 nm (Red) Altitude: 681 km 1. 760 – 900 nm (NIR) Swath: 11 km ERS: European Remote Sensing satellite The main instrument aboard is a SAR-imaging radar, it does not have a multi-spectral scanner aboard. Therefore, the ERS satellite is described in the chapter on radar or microwave remote sensing. HCMM: Heat Capacity Mapping Mission See the chapter on thermal remote sensing.
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33 Primary Use Band Bandwidth 1 Spectral Radiance 2 Required SNR 3 1 620 - 670 21.8 128 Land/Cloud/Aerosols Boundaries 2 841 - 876 24.7 201 3 459 - 479 35.3 243 4 545 - 565 29.0 228 5 1230 - 1250 5.4 74 6 1628 - 1652 7.3 275 Land/Cloud/Aerosols Properties 7 2105 - 2155 1.0 110 8 405 - 420 44.9 880 9 438 - 448 41.9 838 10 483 - 493 32.1 802 11 526 - 536 27.9 754 12 546 - 556 21.0 750 13 662 - 672 9.5 910 14 673 - 683 8.7 1087 15 743 - 753 10.2 586 Ocean Color/ Phytoplankton/ Biogeochemistry 16 862 - 877 6.2 516 17 890 - 920 10.0 167 18 931 - 941 3.6 57 Atmospheric Water Vapor 19 915 - 965 15.0 250 Primary Use Band Bandwidth 1 Spectral Radiance 2 Required NE[delta]T(K) 4 20 3.660 - 3.840 0.45(300K) 0.05 21 3.929 - 3.989 2.38(335K) 2.00 22 3.929 - 3.989 0.67(300K) 0.07 Surface/Cloud Temperature 23 4.020 - 4.080 0.79(300K) 0.07 24 4.433 - 4.498 0.17(250K) 0.25 Atmospheric Temperature 25 4.482 - 4.549 0.59(275K) 0.25 26 1.360 - 1.390 6.00 150(SNR) 27 6.535 - 6.895 1.16(240K) 0.25 Cirrus Clouds Water Vapor 28 7.175 - 7.475 2.18(250K) 0.25 Cloud Properties 29 8.400 - 8.700 9.58(300K) 0.05 Ozone 30 9.580 - 9.880 3.69(250K) 0.25 31 10.780 - 11.280 9.55(300K) 0.05 Surface/Cloud Temperature 32 11.770 - 12.270 8.94(300K) 0.05 33 13.185 - 13.485 4.52(260K) 0.25 34 13.485 - 13.785 3.76(250K) 0.25 35 13.785 - 14.085 3.11(240K) 0.25 Cloud Top Altitude 36 14.085 - 14.385 2.08(220K) 0.35 1 Bands 1 to 19 are in nm; Bands 20 to 36 are in μ m 2 Spectral Radiance values are (W/m2 - μ m-sr) 3 SNR = Signal-to-noise ratio 4 NE(delta)T = Noise-equivalent temperature difference Note: Performance goal is 30-40% better than required MODIS System properties
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34 Envisat Envisat is an initiative of the European Space Agency (ESA) and is the successor of ERS1 and 2. Its launch is delayed several times but is now planned for January 2002. Envisat is a very large satellite (platform) and carries 10 advanced instruments: - MERIS: Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer for ocean pigment concentration, clouds and water vapour and vegetation status. - MIPAS: Michelson Interferometric Passive Atmospheric Sounder for monitoring atmospheric gasses while looking at Earth limb (horizon). - ASAR: Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar for ocean and sea ice applications and deforestation mapping - GOMOS: Global Ozone Monitoring by Occulation of Stars for ozon monitoring in the atmosphere using absorption features in star spectra. - RA2: Radar Altimeter 2 for determining very accurately the satellite’s orbit to calibrate the various sensors - MWR: Microwave Radiometer for measuring atmospheric humidity.
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