N 3 n 4 ground state e 1s 2s 3s 4s 2p 3p 4p 4d 4f 3d

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n = 3 n = 4 “Ground state” E = (-) 1s 2s 3s 4s 2p 3p 4p 4d 4f 3d 71 S. Ensign electronic structure Increasing E n = 1 n = 2 n = 3 n = 4 2s 3s 4s 2p 3p 4p 4d 4f 3d 1s n = Energies of the orbitals in n=1 to 4 for the H atom 72 S. Ensign electronic structure
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