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Cells travel through the lymphatic system when you

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Cells travel through the lymphatic system. --When you see Germinal Centers it is a cluster of dark blue. If seen it is an activated lymph node. *TISSUES CAN BE DIVIDED INTO PRIMARY AND SECONDARY --Primary Lymphoid tissues are antigen independent. --Lymphoid primary organs-- no antigens needed to mature Bone Marrow-antigen independent (do need antigen) Thymus—T cells mature with no antigen needed Appendix—repopulates the gut with normal flora --Secondary Lymphoid tissues ARE antigen dependent. They need antigen to build up immunity. Spleen- antigen dependent. White pulp in spleen. MALT—Mucosal associated lymphoid tissue BALT—Bronchial associated Lymphoid tissue GALT—Gastrointesinal associated Lymphoid tissue Tonsils and Adnoids—Fights infection Cutaneous Tissue ( part of the epidermis) 4. Define inflammation as to the classic symptoms exhibited. Inflammation: The overall reaction of the body to injury or invasion by an infectious agent. Both humoral (antibodies) and cellular mechanisms (T Lymphocytes) are involved in this complex. There are four clinical symptoms: *Redness (RBC), swelling (due to TNF), heat (due to prostiglandins), and pain Major events associated with the process of inflammation are: Increased blood supply to the infected area; increased capillary permeability caused by retraction of endothelial cells lining the vessels; migration of WBC, mainly neutrophils, from the capillaries to the surrounding tissue; and migration of macrophages to the injured area *Notes* Inflammation is the action of TNF (Tumor Necrosis Factor). Fluid builds up at the sight of infection. Heat is produced due to the prostaglandins (these come from the arachodonic asid which are part of the platelets)
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5. List Serum factors that are involved with nonspecific immunity. ****Cytokines are nonspecific They are small soluble proteins that regulate the immune system, orchestrating both innate and the adaptive response to infection. Interlukins and CSF trigger maturation of cells. Chapter 5 Cytokines Interlukins (IL1, IL2, IL6) Interferons TNF (Tumor Necrosis Factor) Chemakines CSF (Colony Stimulating Factors) 6. Explain how the serum factors act in nonspecific immunity. TNF —Is a cytokine. -- Alpha Chain. --This factor lyses certain kinds of tumor cells and allows it to be more permeable for things to get in and out. --used for Rheumatoid arthritis and Chron’s disease Interferons— --interfere with viral replication. --Alpha and Beta do this. --Produced by dendritic cells --activates natural killer cells. (alpha and beta) --interferons get rid of viruses Chemakine --rantes is found in platelets in the granules and released when clotting to fight bacteria Interlukins --triggers the maturation of cells (IL1, IL2, IL6) --IL2 is now used for some cancer therapies --IL6 is acute phase protein. increases in concentration very rapidly.
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