Freedom in netherlands 2historical and critical

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freedom in Netherlands(2)Historical and Critical Dictionary1697-examined religion and persecution, concludedthat nothing can ever be known beyond alldoubt(3)Humanity’s best hope was open-mindedtoleration skepticism(4)Literature on peoples of China, India, Africa,Americas taught that each had its own differentbeliefs in customs, helped change perspectiveof educated Europeans. Began to look at truthand morality in relative rather than absolutetermsv)John Locke(1)Essay Concerning Human Understanding1690 (same year as Second Treatise)- rejectedDescartes view that all ppl are born with certainideas and ways of thinking, instead humansborn with a tabula rasa on which envt writesindividual’s understanding and beliefs.Development by education and socialinstitutions
f)The Philosophes and the Publici)Christian Europe still strongly attached totraditional beliefs early 18thcenturyii)Philosophes- proclaimed they were bringing lightof knowledge to ignorantiii)France saw height on Enlightenment(1)French was international language of educatedclass in 18thcentury(2)Following death of Louis XIV Frenchabsolutism and religious orthodoxy wasweakened, no overwhelming restraints(3)Were philosophers questioning God, humannature, meaning of life, determined to reach andinfluence all French and Eur. economic andsocial elites- the enlightened publiciv)Public different from “the people”- believedmajority of common ppl doomed to superstitionand confused b/c lacked money and leisure to lookbeyond bitter struggle and grind with povertyJean le Rond d’Alembetv)de Montesquieu (1698-1755)(1)The Persian Letters1721- imitation letters byforeigners criticizing existing practices andbeliefs(2)The Spirit of Laws1748- study of republics,monarchies, despotism(a)Forms of govt shaped by history, geography,customs, despotism avoided thru separationof powers- political power divided andshared by diff classes and legal estates-power checks powervi)Voltaire (1694-1778)
(1)All his life struggled against legal injustice andunequal treatment by law(2)Released from prison for promise to leavecountry, lived 3 years in England(3)Gabrielle-Emelie Le Tonnel de du Chatlet-gifted woman, invited Voltaire to live in hercountry house and became companion(a)Excluded from Royal Academy of Sciencesbecause woman(b)Spread ideas of others, translated w/commentaryPrincipia(4)Praised England + English scientific progress,praised Newton for using genius for benefit ofhumanity(5)Apptd royal historian 1742,Age of Louis XIVportrayed Louis as dignified(6)Best form of govt was good monarch, didn’tbelieve in social and economic equality(7)Challenged Catholic church and theology,“Great Clockmaster”, hated all forms ofreligious intolerance, piety and human kindnesswere neededvii)Encyclopedia: The Rational Dictionary of theSciences, the arts, and the Craftsedited by DenisDiderot and Jean le Rond d’Alembert- greatestand most representative intellectual achievement(1)Sought to examine the rapidly expanding

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Term
Fall
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Tags
US History, Nicolaus Copernicus, Scientific Revolution, Tycho Brahe, Religious toleration, modern scientific method, new scientific instruments

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