Lecture 2 Nervous System Cells and their Proteins

Translation is converting the sugar base information

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Translation is converting the sugar base information into amino acids joined together in a specified way such that proteins will form. changing it to a diff “language” Removing and linking of spliceosomes o Allows: multiple versions of the same gene. And multiple products to be co- transcribed o DNA have exons (meaningful protein components) and introns (in the trash) o Transcription (Primary RNA transcript of DNA) o Then modified within the nucleus through RNA splicing by spliceosomes (removes introns) what becomes mRNA is not an exact copy of the entire protein o mRNA then transported to the cytoplasm where it is translated into a polypeptide and then modified into proteins
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o what he means by proteins final functional outcome of gene expression not just amino acids joined by polypeptides regulated by transcription modulation controls transcription o end result of some forms of neuronal communication, hormone actions, target of drug action o transcription regulation sites called promoters that control whether or not a specific gene gets transcribed o first open up the DNA, once it’s opened up if promoter region is exposed and there are transcription factors that bind to the promoter, then RNA polymerase will bind to the transcription and start reading DNA and making RNA. o A lot of times extracellular signals are controlling factor in determining transcription will influence transcription factors and these will translocate to the nucleus and cause gene expression to be initiated o Neuronal communication can be a major regulator for transcription factor activation. “Epigenetic” regulation I: DNA Methylations o Addition of methyl groups to nucleotides of DNA (at CpG) will reduce transcription of the gene physically changing DNA changes whether or not particular promoter regions, transcription factors can bind to the DNA and activate transcription o the C (cytosine) molecule can be modified, can have a methyl group attached to it, occurs when there are high concentrations of C and G o This type of change is typically permanent due to maintenance of enzymes (eg Dnt 1) and initially thought to only occur in the development but recently it has been shown to be produced by learning and drug exposure o By adding methyl groups, change physical properties of DNA o High levels of methylation prevent transcription factors from binding to promoters Thought of a way to silence DNA reduces transcription o major aspect of how non-neuronal genes are silenced “Epigenetic” regulation II: Histone modification o attach small molecules to histone o DNA tightly coiled around histone protein → nucleosome complex of histone with associated chormatin o it is opened up by influencing proteins o attachment of small molecules to histones (proteins important for the condensing chromosomes) dna is opened up by influencing proteins itself, (opening nucleosomes) can modify proteins
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