Democracymeans then that there is no alienation of power neither in relation to

Democracymeans then that there is no alienation of

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“Democracy…means, then, that there is no alienation of power— neither in relation to its exercise, nor in relation to its formation or the specificity of executive action.”10 This negative definition, in terms of non-alienation, can also be put positively as follows: it is “the liberation of all social energies in a general conatus [desire or striving to survive] of the organization of the freedom of all. Continual and permanent.”11 From this point of view, “Legitimation is inalienably rooted in collectivity; only the collectively expressed potentia, only the creativity of the multitudo determines legitimacy.”12 What this means is that even when a State or institution has been constituted, it is not inoculated against the constitutive process of the multitude that gave rise to it. It is constantly and at every point (and not just at a few points and at strictly defined intervals) under threat of the withdrawal of the civil consensus that constructed it. 13 For Spinoza and Negri, this immanence and permanence of the collective constitutive process is what makes democracy the only genuinely absolute government. “Absolute” in this case does not refer to “absolutism,” which would be the figure of the fixed and unalterable transcendence of the despot and the State, but rather to the unlimitedness of a continuous and immanent process of re-creation or re-invention that is congruent with Deleuze and Guattari’s definition of the absolute deterritorialization of philosophy itself: democracy…determined sub specie aeternitas…[is] a metamorphosis that does not stop, that has no end—it increasingly affirms the power of the ‘absolutum’ collective body, at the very moment in which it denies the presence of fear, terror, death….Therefore the imperium democraticum, because it is omnino absolutum, because it lives on eternity, is not limited to any [positive political] Constitution…but rather constantly transcends them all dynamically since it is ever more capable of perfection.14 If it is not limited to a ny specific form of constitution (which would in fact re- 13 Timothy Murphy (University of Oklahoma, English). “Becoming Multitude: Toward a Theory and Practice of Absolute Democracy.” April 16 th , 2005.
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R6 D&G K introduce a version of the irreversible contractarian transfer of right and power ), then rather than being one particular form of government among others, in fact “the Spinozian definition of democracy is the definition of ‘non-government’….[It] is not a form of government but rather a social activity of transformation ” (ibid). Spinozian absolute democracy is not any historically given actual form, but rather the asymptotic virtual limit of the constitutive process, and thus it “can in no way be defined as a constitutional democracy, that is, as a form of government based on the division and balance of Powers and on their reciprocal dialectic”15 such as exists in contemporary democratic States. Democracy sub specie aeternitas is what
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