Parathyroid Regulates calcium levels in the blood Pancreas islets Raises lowers

Parathyroid regulates calcium levels in the blood

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Parathyroid:Regulates calcium levels in the blood. Pancreas islets:Raises & lowers blood sugar; active in carbohydrate metabolism. Thymus gland:Plays a role in immune responses.Pineal gland:Has an influence on daily biorhythms & sexual active maity.Pituitary gland:Plays an important role in growth & development. Endocrine functions of the PancreasPancreas:Produces insulin & glucagonInsulin lowers glucose Insulin affects fat metabolism, & can change livers ability to store fat.Thyroid & Parathyroid glandsThyroid & parathyroid are located below larynx Thyroid gland:regulates metabolism & secretes hormonesUrinary System Consists of kidneys, urinary ducts, & bladder.Kidneys:bean-shaped structures located at the back of abdominal cavity oHas three layers:Renal cortex, renal medulla, & renal pelvis.oKidney receives blood from renal arteries.oKidneys filter the blood, reabsorb needed materials, secrete wastes & excess water in urine. oBlood flows from the renal arteries into arterioles into the glomerulus where its filtered. Glomerular filtrate enters the proximal convoluted tubule where water, glucose, ions, & other organic molecules are reabsorbed back into the bloodstream.
oUrea & drugs are removed from the blood in thedistal convoluted tubule. opH of the blood can be adjusted in distal convoluted tubule by secretion of hydrogen ions. oUnabsorbed materials flow out of collecting tubuleURINE is drained from the kidneys through the ureters to urinary bladder. Expelled through urethra. Immune SystemProtects body against invading pathogens including bacteria, viruses, fungi, & protists. oImmune system includes:lymphatic system (lymph, lymph capillaries, lymph vessels, & lymph nodes)oLymph nodes are located in the neck, armpits, & groin area.oThymus is a maturation chamber for immature T-cells that are formed in bone marrow. oSpleen cleans the blood of dead cells, & pathogens. The body’s general immune defenses includeoSkin:Intact epidermis & dermis form a form a formidable barrier against bacteria, oCiliated mucous membranes:Cilia sweep pathogens out of therespiratory tract. oGlandular Secretions:Secretions from exocrine glands destroy bacteria. oGastric secretions:Gastric acid destroys pathogens.oNormal Bacterial populations:compete with pathogens in the gut & vag.oPhagocytes & inflammation reponses mobilize white blood cells & chemical reactions to stop infection.Three types of whte blood cells
oMacrophage: Phagocytes that alert T cells to presence of foreign substances. oT lymphocytes:These directly attack cells infected by viruses & bacteriaoB lymphocytes:These cells target specific bacteria for destruction. Types of leukocytesoLeukocytes are produced in red bone marrow.Leukocytes are macrophages. (engulf & destroy pathogens).Granulocytes (neutrophils, basophils & eosinophils) (Neutrophil: respond quickly to invaders)(Basophil: alert body of invasion)Eosinophils: large, long-living phagocytes that defend against multicellular invaders.

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