time period found that children who were aggressive at age 8 were more likely to be convicted of criminal offenses later in life. 16. A coercive home environment has been linked to an increase in children’s aggression. 17. Exposure to which type of violence can increase the likelihood of aggressive behavior in children of all ages? All of the above 18. The general category of rule-breaking behaviors in which children yell, throw temper tantrums, and are destructive and sometimes highly aggressive, is called conduct problems 19. Ongoing verbal or physical aggression that is aimed at particular victims is called ______. 20. What behavior pattern is a common outcome of bullying? Bullies are at a higher risk for dropping out of school 21. National surveys estimate that as many as 1/3 of U.S. students have either bullied, been a victim, or both. 22. _____ of bullying are often more anxious, lonely, and appear more vulnerable. 23. Children who grow up under negative conditions but still have positive developmental outcomes are called resilient children. 24. Each year in the United States, about 40%-50% marriages end in divorce. 25. During _________ a child provides emotional support or acts as an advisor or confidant for a parent. 26. Define emotional parentification and instrumental parentification. -emotional parentification : situation in which children become more concerned about parent's emotional well-being than their own EX. mediator for parents, managing household -instrumental parentification : taking on responsibilities for household tasks and the care of siblings 27. The divorce-stress-adjustment perspective asserts that a child’s adjustment to divorce is influenced by different vulnerabilities and protective factors. 28. The number of best friends that children have tends to increase until about age _______, and then children become much more selective in whom they designate as their best friends.
29. Bigelow’s (1977) study examining friendships found that first-graders most frequently report common activities as the most important characteristic in a best friend. 30. During middle childhood, what is the average number of hours children spend every day watching television? 2 to 3 hours 31. During middle childhood, boys spend more time on the internet, whereas girls spend more time listening to music CDs 32. Bandura’s research examining the effects of violent television on aggression found that children who viewed violent video clips were more likely to model aggressive behaviors . 33. The American Academy of Pediatrics discourages ,TV viewing for children under the age of 18 months. 34. Several studies suggest that playing action video games may increase aggression. 35. Neuroscience and physiological studies examining chronic exposure to violent video games have found decreased activation in brain areas involved in self-control.
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- expressive language disorder