Despite these challenges many African American soldiers fought with distinction

Despite these challenges many african american

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Despite these challenges, many African American soldiers fought with distinction in the war. For example, the African American 92nd and 93rd Infantry Divisions fought in bitter battles along the Western Front. Many of them won praise from both the French commander, Marshal Henri Pétain, and the United States commander, General John Pershing. The entire 369th Infantry Regiment won the highly prized French decoration, the Croix de Guerre (“war cross”), for gallantry in combat. Women in the Military World War I was the first war in which women officially served in the armed forces, although only in noncombat positions. Women nurses had served in both the army and navy since the early 1900s, but as auxiliaries. Before World War I, nurses were not assigned ranks, and the women were not technically enlisted in the army or navy. As the military prepared for war in 1917, it faced a severe shortage of clerical workers because so many men were assigned to active duty. Early in 1917, the navy authorized the enlistment of women to meet its clerical needs. By the end of the war, over 11,000 women had served in the navy. Although most per- formed clerical duties, others served as radio opera- tors, electricians, pharmacists, and photographers. The army still did not enlist women. Instead, it hired them as temporary clerical workers. The only women to actually serve in the army were in the Army Nursing Corps. Army nurses were the only women in the military sent overseas during the war. Over 20,000 nurses served in the army during the war, including more than 10,000 overseas. Describing How did Congress ensure that the military had enough troops to fight the war? Organizing Industry The progressive emphasis on careful planning and scientific management shaped the federal govern- ment’s approach to mobilizing the American war Reading Check Women and War Although not allowed in combat, many women served in auxiliary posi- tions, such as nursing. Here, Birmingham, Alabama, women collect money during a Red Cross parade in 1918. In what other capacities did women serve during the war? History CHAPTER 14 World War I and Its Aftermath 457
Propaganda Posters George Creel’s Committee on Public Information encouraged Americans to do all they could to support the war effort. What is the general theme of these posters? Do you think the posters were effective? History economy. To efficiently manage the relationship between the federal government and private compa- nies, Congress created special boards. These boards emphasized cooperation between big business and government. Business executives, professional managers, and government representatives staffed the boards. Their goal was to ensure the most efficient use of national resources to further the war effort. The War Industries Board One of the first agencies established was the War Industries Board (WIB).

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