Correlative conjunctions are...used like coordinating conjunctions, but are always used inpairs (i.e., "both, and" or "neither, nor")Subordinate conjunctions...joins a clause to another, on which it depends for its fullmeaning (i.e., "I read the paper because it interests me")Word class conversion is...the word formation process in which a word of one grammaticalform becomes a word of another grammatical form without anychanges to spelling or pronunciation (i.e., Google becomes "togoogle", noun becomes verb)Generalization is...a type of semantic change by which the meaning of a wordbecomes broader or more inclusive than its earlier meaningSpecialization is...a type of semantic change by which the meaning of a wordbecomes less general or inclusive than its earlier meaningA compound is...the combination of two or more words (free morphemes) tocreate a new word (commonly a noun, verb, or adjective) i.e.,"blackboard"Diphthongs are...doubled vowels that move from one articulation to anotherEnglish is characterized by the frequent use of...diphthongsRising diphthongs are...sounds more toward a high vowel (i.e., [ei], [ai], [oi])Centring diphthongs are...sounds more toward an a [shaw] sound or [eshaw], where,pure, herePlace of articulation: bilabiallips togetherPlace of articulation: labiodentallower lip, upper teethPlace of articulation: dentaltip of tongue, upper teethPlace of articulation: alveolartip of tongue, alveolar ridgePlace of articulation: palataltongue, back part of ridgePlace of articulation: velartongue back, soft palateVoice sounds are...those in which the vocal chords vibrate (p, k, s)Unvoiced sounds are...those in which the vocal chords do not vibrate (d, g, v)Phonological rules are...rules about how sounds may or may not go together in alanguageA lexical field is...a group of words with associated meanings and uses (i.e.,software, modem, cursor, mouse, and monitor)Blending is...forming words by combining two or more words by droppingsome letters and producing a new meaning (i.e., motor + hotel= motel)Compounding is...the joining of two or more words to form a new wordClipping is...the process of cutting off the beginning or end of a word, orboth, leaving a part to stand for the whole (i.e., prof, gym, ad,bike)Acronyms are...words derived from the the initials of several wordsBack-derivation (or back-formation) is...the formation of new words by the removal of an affix. it may bedefined as the formation of a word from one that looks like itsderivative (i.e., "sculpt" from "sculptor")Ablaut is...a system of regular vowel variations in Proto-Indo-European(PIE). an example of ablaut in English is the strong verb sing,sang, sung, and its related noun, song.Degree words are...adverbs that include words like very, so, too, rather, and quiteto express the degree of an adjective or adverbGlides are...
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- Fall '12