Purposes residues rules satisfaction sentiments

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purposes residues rules satisfaction sentiments standards stereotypes temperament traits utilities valences values sibie to observation but inferable from verbal statements and other behav- iors and useful in predicting still other observable and measurable verbal and nonverbal behavior' (Levitin 1973: 492). Constructs do not 'exist' in an absolute sense; we have defined them into existence. The basic problem in interpreting stirvey results is bridging the gap between the researcher's and the respondents' minds. If a researc^r imposes on the data, she analyzes a fiamework that does not reflect distinctions made by respondents. Her conclusions are gratuitous: they tell us something about the researcher, but not about the respondents. Attitudes, Vaiuos, and CuNurs Three of the constructs most frequently covered by questionnaires are atti- tudes, values, and organizational culture. One definition of an attitude is: 'a relatively enduring organization of beliefs around an object or situation pre- disposing one to respond in some preferential manner' (Rcriceach 1972: 112). One definition of a value is 'a broad tendency to prefn: certain states of affairs over others' (Hofstede 1980: 19). One definition of an organizational culture is 'the collective programming of the mind which distinguishes the members of one organization from another' (Hofstede 1991: 262). The main purpose of this article is to use empirical data for testing to what extent the distinctions in respondents' minds warrant the use of attitudes, values and organizational culture as sqiaiate constructs, and to what extent these three can be considered to be indqiendent of each other. Based on earlier experience (e.g. Hofstede 1994: Chapt. 3), I expected to find that attitudes and values are different and indq>endent constructs. With regard to organizational culture I expected the relationships to be more complex, as will be outlined below.
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Attitudes and Culture 479 Attitudes are the most common component of surveys; they include, but are not limited to, components of job satisfiaction. Virtually all surveys of employees in organizations cover attitudes; the 'objects or situations' (see above) covered are different aspects of the job and the work situation, and information about attitudes is relatively easy to translate into practical con- clusions. The study of values assumes a more basic interest; information about val- ues does not as a rule lead to immediate practical conclusions. The differ- ence between values and attitudes is illustrated in the following example: in an employee survey, 'how satisfied are you with your career opportuni- ties?' is an attitude question, but 'how important is it to you to have career opportunities?' is a value question. Motivation is an assumed mental pro- gramme that is often associated with both attitudes and values (in motiva- tion theory terminology, with 'expectancies' and 'valences', e,g, Vroom 1964), Whereas attitudes and valties can thus be conceptually distinguished in the researcher's mind, we cannot be sure without further proof that respon- dents' answers make the same distinction. In the example mentioned, are
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  • Spring '12
  • dr.long
  • Geeit Hofstede

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