The major functions of these lining cells are the reabsorption of water and small molecules from the filtrate into the blood, and the secretion of wastes from the blood into the urine. Proper function of the kidney requires that it receives and adequately filters blood. 74 Name the parts of a nephron.
Glomerulus, Efferent arteriole, Bowman's capsule, Proximal tube, Cortical collecting tube, Distal tube, Loop of Henle, Collecting duct, Peritubular capillaries, Arcuate vein, Arcuate artery, Afferent arteriole, and Juxtaglomerular apparatus. 75 Where does most of the reabsorption occur? proximal convoluted tubule 76 Explain the role of each of the following hormones in kidney function specifically (which part of the nephron they work on and what do they change): ADH, ANP, angiotensin II, aldosterone, PTH. ADH : regulating the amount of water in the blood and is released from the pituitary gland based on signals from the hypothalamus, which detects the water levels of the blood ANP : reduce the water, sodium and adipose loads on the circulatory system, thereby reducing blood pressure. Angiotensin II : stimulates the release of aldosterone, another hormone, from the adrenal cortex. Aldosterone : aid in the conservation of sodium, secretion of potassium, water retention and to stabilize blood pressure. PTH : reduces the reabsorption of phosphate from the proximal tubule of the kidney. enhances the uptake of phosphate from the intestine and bones into the blood. 77 What is the % amount of fluid vs. solid material in human body? 70% - 30 % 78 Give definitions of the following terms: dehydration, hyperhydration, perspiration, insensible loss of water, diuresis, natriuresis, acidosis, alkalosis, osmosis, simple diffusion, facilitated diffusion, primary active transport, secondary active transport. Dehydration chemical reaction that involves the loss of a water molecule from the reacting molecule. Hyperhydration: an excess of water in the body. Perspiration. The act or the process of producing and excreting a watery, saline fluid that evaporates from the skin. And the fluid itself that is excreted by the body and evaporates immediately and thereby serves as a means to regulate body temperature. insensible ' water loss water that passes through the skin and is lost by evaporation, and. Evaporative water loss from the respiratory tract. Diuresis increased or excessive production of urine. Natriuresis: Excess of sodium in the urine
Acidosis : an excessively acid condition of the body fluids or tissues. Alkalosis: an excessively alkaline condition of the body fluids or tissues that may cause weakness or cramps. Osmosis: a process by which molecules of a solvent tend to pass through a semipermeable membrane from a less concentrated solution into a more concentrated one, thus equalizing the concentrations on each side of the membrane. simple diffusion refers to a process whereby a substance passes through a membrane without the aid of an intermediary Facilitated diffusion is the process of spontaneous passive transport of molecules or ions across a cell's membrane via specific trans membrane integral proteins.