doi:10.1097/hjh.0000000000001306 3. Types of Anemias: a. Pernicious anemia results from inadequate vitamin B12 absorption because of autoantibodies against the B12 transporter intrinsic factor (IF). b. An inadequate dietary intake of folate causes folate deficiency anemia . c. Iron Metabolism Deficiency Anemia: IDA is the most common type of anemia worldwide. It is usually a result of blood loss or poor nutritional intake. d. Sideroblastic anemia or sideroachrestic anemia is a form of anemia in which the bone marrow produces ringed sideroblasts rather than healthy red blood cells (erythrocytes). e. Acute blood loss from hemorrhage results in posthemorrhagic anem ia with the severity depending on the amount of hemorrhage. f. Hemolytic anemia is a result of excessive destruction of erythrocytes and may be acquired or hereditary (auto immune disease). References: McCance, K. L., & Huether, S. E. (2019). Pathophysiology: the biologic basis for disease in adults and children (7th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Elsevier. MPH, S. N. (2017, November 17). Anemia Causes, Types, Symptoms & Treatment. Retrieved January 30, 2018, from 4. Diagnosing Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia: BPH is characterized by proliferation of the cellular elements of the prostate. (Deters, 2017) Diagnosing BPH: (McCance & Huether, 2014) Begin with a rectal examination Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) blood test: The PSA test is a blood test used primarily to screen for prostate cancer
Remediation Mastery Assignment 9 The test measures the amount of prostate-specific antigen ( PSA ) in your blood. PSA is a protein produced by both cancerous and noncancerous tissue in the prostate. Most men without prostate cancer have PSA levels under 4 nanograms per milliliter (ng/mL) of blood Tests like rectal ultrasound and PSA are conducted to identify cancerous developments, if any. Examination of the urinary tract, urethra, and urinary bladder are also advised. References: Deters, L., MD. (2017, December 18). Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH). Retrieved January 30, 2018, from McCance, K. L., & Huether, S. E. (2019). Pathophysiology: the biologic basis for disease in adults and children (7th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Elsevier. 5. Cystitis Vs. Pyelonephritis: Cystitis is an inflammation of the bladder caused by bacteria. Symptoms include dysuria, frequency with urination, strong smelling urine and possible low- grade fever. (Healthline, 2016) Pyelonephritis is the bacterial invasion of the renal parenchyma. Bacteria usually reach the kidney by ascending from the lower urinary tract. The bacteria may also reach the kidney via the bloodstream causing life threatening problems. (Fulop, 2017) References: Fulop, T., MD. (2017, November 15). Acute Pyelonephritis. Retrieved January 30, 2018, from Health Line. (2016, May). Cystitis | Symptoms, Causes, and Treatments. Retrieved January 30, 2018, from
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