Again Flege and Eefting in their research noted that various factors influence

Again flege and eefting in their research noted that

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Again, Flege and Eefting in their research noted that various factors influence the learner's ability to be able to comprehend and achieve fluency in 2 nd language. Such factors include age. The Critical Period Hypothesis (CPH) states “there is an age-based constraint on the acquisition of a full critical native fluency in a second language” ( Flege & Eefting, 1986). The article by Mark Patkoski the predictions that Flege and Eefting have based his understanding of CPH ( Patkowski, 1990). The first prediction is about the assumption that speech acquisition occurs before any hemispherical specialization of language happens in the brain. Flege and Eefting put forward the notion that CP lateralization, which means that there are linguistically specific zones in the brain, does not provide a justified description for CPH ( Flege & Eefting, 1986). The right approach to the concept according to this article would have been analyzing elasticity, which is fundamental for CPH. The second principle that the article disagrees with is the speech after one has experienced CP becomes much slower and a lot more unsuccessful. The article points out that the concept of CPH is based on achieving second language proficiency, and not concerned with the speed of acquisition. Flege and Eefting even goes further to elaborate the even with languages with local dialects, such as the American dialect, the notion of CPH would apply as an elastic limit inducer when adopting the dialect as a second language. Another piece of evidence presented in the article by Flege and Eefting is about a study to see whether older students could transfer skills and knowledge learnt from their 1 st language to achieve faster proficiency than the younger students. Older students portrayed greatest difficulty when learning the second language. However, Flege and Eefting refused to explore CPH as a contributor to such behavior, instead attributing it to pressure to perform. As earlier mentioned, other influencing factors work together towards ensuring comprehension of a new language, regardless of age ( Flege & Eefting, 1986). This is not to mean that the CPH theory is not valid because the theory is mostly employed by studies that focus on understanding the linguistic based on dialect and 2nd language acquisition. In monitoring the effect of age when an individual is just starting to learn a second language, especially a language just as American English which is characterized by various dialects, the most viable practices are natural exposure and sociolinguistic environs that place the student at an advantage ( Flege & Eefting, 1986). Second, the age of a learner is profoundly important when learning a new language coupled with other factors such as development, input, motivation and social. However, in as much as these factors contribute immensely the articles reviewed do not offer a convincing 12
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AMERICA DIALECT analysis that warrant disregard of the notion of a biological limitation on language acquisition ( Patkowski, 1990).
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