Clearly, however, this mode of incorporation is open only to a minority of immigrant groups. In addition, acculturation of professionals and other primary sector immigrants is qualitatively different from that undergone by others. Re-gardless of their differences, immigrants in other modes tend to learn the new language and culture with a heavy "local" content. Although acculturation may be slow, especially in the case of enclave groups, it carries with it elements unique to the surrounding community—its language inflections, particular traditions, and loyalties (Greeley, 1971; Suttles, 1968). On the contrary, acculturation of primary sector immigrants is of a more cosmopolitan sort. Because career requirements often entail physical mobility, the new language and culture are learned more rapidly and more generally, without strong attachments to a particular community. Thus, while minorities entering menial labor, enclave, or middleman enterprise in the United States have eventually become identified with a certain city or region, the same is not true for immigrant professionals, who tend
TABLE 3. Typology of modes of incorporationariable Primary sector immigration Secondary sector immigration Immigrant enclaves Middleman minorities Size of immigrant population Spatial concentration, national Spatial concentration, local Original class composition Present occupational status distribution Mobility opportunities Institutional diversification of ethnic community Participation in ethnic organizations Resilience of ethnic culture Knowledge of host country language Knowledge of host country institutions Modal reaction of host community Small Dispersed Dispersed Homogeneous: skilled workers and professionals High mean status/low variance High: formal promo- tion ladders None Little or none Low High High Acceptance Large Dispersed Concentrated Homogeneous: manual laborers Low mean status/low variance Low Low: weak social institutions Low Average Low Low Discrimination Large Concentrated Concentrated Heterogenous: en- trepreneurs, profes- sionals, and workers Mean status/high variance High: informal ethnic ladders High: institutional completeness High High Low Average Hostility Small Concentrated Dispersed Homogeneous: mer- chants and some professionals Mean status/low variance Average: informal eth-nic ladders Medium: strong social and economic institutions High High High High Mixed: elite accep-tance/mass hostility
66 ALEJANDRO PORTES AND ROBERT D. MANNING to "disappear," in a cultural sense, soon after their arrival (Stevens et al., 1978; Cardona and Cruz, 1980). Awareness of patterned differences among immigrant groups in their forms of entry and labor market incorporation represents a significant advance, in our view, from earlier undifferentiated descriptions of the adaptation process. This typology is, however, a provisional effort. Just as detailed research on the condition of particular minorities modified or replaced earlier broad generalizations, the propositions advanced here will require revision. New groups arriving in the United States at present and a revived interest in immigration should provide the required incentive for empirical studies and theoretical advances in the future.