More than 80 of terrestrial plants have mycorrhizae

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More than 80% of terrestrial plants have mycorrhizae Plants receive increased supply of water and mineral nutrients Fungi get organic food molecules from the plants 2 most common types are ectomycorrhizae and endomycorrhizae
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25 Ectomycorrhizae Coat root surface and grow between cells of roots
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26 Endomycorrhizae Grow into root cell walls and plasma membranes Arbuscular mycorrhizae form highly branched structures with high surface area
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27 Fungal endophytes Fungi live within the tissues of various types of plants Endophytes obtain organic food molecules from plants In turn contribute toxins or antibiotics that deter foraging animals, insect pests, and microbial pathogens Plants with endophytes often grow better than plants of the same species without endophytic fungi
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28 Lichens Partnerships of particular fungi and certain photosynthetic green algae or cyanobacteria, and sometimes both 25,000 lichen species, but these did not all descend from a common ancestor At least five separate fungal lineages 3 major forms – crustose, foliose, fruticose Photosynthetic partner provides organic food molecules and oxygen Fungal partner provides carbon dioxide, water, and minerals
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29
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30 Lichens reproduce Sexually with fungal partner producing fruiting bodies and sexual spores 1/3 can only reproduce asexually using soredia Small hyphal clumps surrounding a few algal cells Clones
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31 Biotechnology applications Fungi convert inexpensive organic compounds into citric acid, glycerol, and antibiotics Distinctive flavor of blue cheese Saccharomyces cerevisiae for bread, beer and wine Replace chemical procedures that generate harmful waste products Wood pulp bleaching
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32 5 fungal Phyla Chytridiomycota Zygomycota Glomeromycota Ascomycota Basidiomycota
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