It has been found that the microcapsules of the

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. It has been found that the microcapsules of the herbal extract- fi nished denim fabric exhibit activity for the sample after 20 washes. They exhibit potential for antimicrobial activity against S. aureus and E. coli. It is observed that the microencapsulated herbal extracts possess a very good resistance for microbes even after 15 washes. The antimicrobial ef fi ciency has been de fi ned in 12 N. Gokarneshan et al.
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terms of bacterial reduction percentage for directly applied and herbal microcap- sules applied fabrics (Sanjay Vishwakarma et al. 2010 ). The herbal extracts applied both directly and microencapsulated show better activity against S. aureus than against E. coli . Fabrics on which herbal extract has been directly applied do not exhibit much activity after 10 washes, since the extracts are coated only on the surface without any fi rm bonding and get removed by washing. This was ascertained when the structure of microcapsules was studied by scanning electron microscopy using image analysis technique. The antimicrobial ef fi cacy by quantitative method in terms of bacterial reduction and the wash durability of antimicrobial activity was studied by agar diffusion method (AATCC 124). The fabrics show potential for antimicrobial activity against S. aureus and E. coli. The microencapsulated herbal extracts are highly resistant to microbes even after 15 washes. Hence, the herbal extracts are nanoencapsulated so as to increase the durability of the fabric. 6.2 Nanoencapsulation of Herbal Extract The exhaustion method has been used to apply the nanocapsules of the herbal extracts on the denim fabric, and the antibacterial activity was evaluated for the fi nished fabric and for the fabrics after washes (Table 1 ; Fig. 12 ). The results reveal that the fabric fi nished with nanocapsules of herbal extracts is able to retain the Table 1 Antibacterial activity of the microcapsules and nanocapsule- fi nished fabrics (Sumithra and Vasugi Raaja 2012 ) Samples Zone of bacteriostasis (mm) Zone of inhibition (mm) Microcapsule Nanocapsule E. coli S. aureus E. coli S. aureus Finished fabric 24 33 30 35 Finished fabric after10 washes 0 30 29 33 Finished fabric after 20 washes 0 27 28 30 Finished fabric after 30 washes 0 0 28 25 Fig. 12 Zones of inhibition of nanoencapsulated denim fabrics a for E. coli , b for S. aureus , c for E. Coli after 10, 20 and 30 washes, and d for S. Aureus after 10, 20 and 30 washes (Sumithra and Vasugi Raaja 2012 ) Advances in Nanotextile Finishes An Approach Towards Sustainability 13
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antimicrobial activity even after 40 industrial washes, hence providing long-term durability to the fi nished fabric. Nanosized silver, titanium dioxide, and zinc oxide have been used for imparting antibacterial properties (Pujari et al. 2010 ). The effect of TiO 2 nanoparticles concentration with and without using 4 % PUA binder on antimicrobials on either screen printed or pigment-dyed silk fabric shows that the use of PUA binder alone has no effect on the antimicrobial property. But upon using TiO 2 in either printing paste or in ink preparation, good results are observed against E. coli
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  • Fall '19
  • N. Gokarneshan

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