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ECE _ DSST Organizational Behavior

A flexible manufacturing system is the integration of

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Unformatted text preview: A flexible manufacturing system is the integration of computer-aided design, engineering, and manufacturing to produce low-volume products at mass production costs. In a global economy, those manufacturing organizations that can respond rapidly to change have a competitive advantage. They can better meet the diverse needs of customers and deliver products faster than their competitors. The unique characteristic of flexible manufacturing systems is that by integrating technology, they can produce low-volume products for customers at a cost comparable to what had been previously possible only through mass production. With flexible manufacturing, when management wants to produce a new part, it doesn’t change machines, it just changes the computer program. The JCM identifies five job characteristics and their relationship to personal and work outcomes . JCM (Job Characteristics Model). According to the JCM, any job can be described in terms of five core job dimensions. The first dimension is skill variety, which is the degree to which the job requires a variety of different activities. Task identity is the degree to which the job requires completion of an identifiable piece of work. Task significance is the degree to which the job has a substantial impact on the lives of other people. Autonomy is the degree to which the job provides substantial freedom. The last dimension of this model is feedback. If employees suffer from overroutinization of their work, one alternative is to use Job Rotation . When an activity is no longer challenging, the employee is rotated to another job, at the same level, that has similar skill requirements. The strengths of job rotation are that it reduces boredom and increases motivation through diversifying the employee’s activities. Organizational benefits come since employees with a wider range of skills give management more flexibility in scheduling work, adapting to changes, and filling vacancies. On the other hand, training costs are increased, and productivity is reduced by moving a worker into a new position. Job enrichment refers to the vertical expansion of jobs. This increases the degree to which the worker controls the planning, execution, and evaluation of his or her work. An enriched job organizes tasks so as to allow the worker to do a complete activity, increases the employee’s freedom and independence, increases responsibility, and provides feedback, so an individual will be able to assess and correct his or her own performance. Job enrichment refers to vertical expansion--adding more responsibility to a job. Horizontal expansion would mean simply adding more of the same level work to a job (i.e. a dish washer cleaning additional dishes), as opposed to adding higher levels of responsibility and independence (i.e. a cook getting some management responsibility in addition to cooking)....
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