ECE _ DSST Organizational Behavior

Organizational benefits come since employees with a

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activities. Organizational benefits come since employees with a wider range of skills give management more flexibility in scheduling work, adapting to changes, and filling vacancies. On the other hand, training costs are increased, and productivity is reduced by moving a worker into a new position. Job enrichment refers to the vertical expansion of jobs. This increases the degree to which the worker controls the planning, execution, and evaluation of his or her work. An enriched job organizes tasks so as to allow the worker to do a complete activity, increases the employee’s freedom and independence, increases responsibility, and provides feedback, so an individual will be able to assess and correct his or her own performance. Job enrichment refers to vertical expansion--adding more responsibility to a job. Horizontal expansion would mean simply adding more of the same level work to a job (i.e. a dish washer cleaning additional dishes), as opposed to adding higher levels of responsibility and independence (i.e. a cook getting some management responsibility in addition to cooking). While most people work an eight-hour day, five days a week, a number of organizations have introduced alternative work schedule options. A compressed work week is a four-day week, with employees working 10 hours a day. This program was conceived to allow workers more leisure time and shopping time, and to permit them to travel to and from work at non-rush-hour times. Supporters suggest that such a program can increase employee enthusiasm, morale, and commitment; increase productivity and reduce costs; and reduce overtime, turnover, and absenteeism. Flextime is where employees work during a common core time period each day, but have discretion in forming their total workday from a flexible set of hours outside the core. Employees have to work a specific number of hours a week, but they are free to vary the hours within certain limits. For example, exclusive of a one-hour lunch break, the core may be 9 a.m. to 3 p.m., with the office actually opening at 6 a.m. and closing at 6 p.m. Benefits include reduced absenteeism, increased productivity, reduced overtime expenses, reduced traffic congestion, elimination of tardiness, and increased autonomy. The major drawback is that flextime is not applicable to every job. Job sharing is the practice of having two or more people split a 40-hour-a-week job. For example, one person might perform the job from 8 a.m. to noon, and another performs the same job from 1 p.m. to 5 p.m.; or the two could work full, but alternate, days. From management’s standpoint, job sharing allows the organization to draw on the talents of more than one individual in a given job. It also opens up the opportunity to acquire skilled workers who might not be available on a full-time basis
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Family-friendly organizations are companies that offer an umbrella of work/family programs such as on-site day care, child-care and elder-care referrals, and flexible hours. These companies also offer compressed work weeks, job sharing, telecommuting, temporary part-time employment, and relocation assistance for employees’ family members. Creating a
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