that described a number of different situations and asked respondents to preference--rank a fixed set of answers. Using this approach, it’s been found that people in different occupations place different importance on the six value types Milton Rokeach created the RVS, which consists of two sets of values, with each set containing 18 individual value items. RVS (Rokeach Value Survey). One set, called terminal values refers to desirable end-states of existence. These are the goals a person would like to achieve during his or her lifetime. The other set, called instrumental values, refers to preferable modes of behavior, or means of achieving the terminal values. Several studies confirm that the RVS values vary among groups. People in the same occupations or categories tend to hold similar values.
Attitudes are evaluative statements concerning objects, people, or events. Attitudes, which can be either favorable or unfavorable, reflect how one feels about something. For example, when someone says, “I like my job,” they are expressing their attitude about work. Attitudes are not the same as values, but the two are interrelated . This can be seen by looking at the three components of an attitude: cognition, effect, and behavior. Attitudes, like values, are acquired from parents, teachers, and peer group members. In contrast to values, attitudes are less stable. In organizations, attitudes are important because they affect job behavior. The term job satisfaction refers to an individual’s general attitude toward his or her job. A person with a high level of job satisfaction holds positive attitudes toward the job whereas a person who is dissatisfied with his or her job holds negative attitudes about the job. When people speak of employee attitudes, more often than not they mean job satisfaction. Job involvement is the degree to which a person identifies with his or her job, actively participates in it, and considers his or her performance important to self-worth. Employees with a high level of job involvement strongly identify with and really care about the kind of work they do. High levels of job involvement have been found to be related to fewer absences and lower resignation rates. Organizational commitment is the degree to which an employee identifies with a particular organization and its goals, and wishes to maintain membership in the organization. While high job involvement means identifying with one’s specific job, a high organizational commitment means identifying with one’s employing organization. Studies indicate that an individual’s level of organizational commitment is a better indicator of turnover than the far more frequently used job satisfaction predictor. An employee may be dissatisfied with his or her particular job and consider it a temporary position, yet not be dissatisfied with the organization as a whole.
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