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The largest slave holder at this time was Washington(1st) followed by Jefferson(3rd). Onlya couple of dozen people did this. It was the colonial elites who led the revolution. Once the states were created, they faced a problem. They were in a war with England. It was clear that if they didn’t work together, it would be much easier for England to destroy them because England could just conquer one state at a time. The colonial elites believed that something had to be created so that the states could act in unity. The AOC are known as the first constitution. How are the articles organized? The articles do not create a state. They created an international organization, like the UN. The decision making power in the AOC was held by the continental congress. However, the continental congress was not a state. It didn’t exercise power over any territory. It doesn’t have any territory. What was the territory controlled by? By the 13 sovereign
states. Power flowed from the bottom up. In a state, it’s the top down. It flowed from the bottom up in two ways. One is the continental congress had no power to tax, and no power to raise money. All it could do was make requests to the states to donate. Second, congress did not have its own military. The army that it was able to put together was made up of the militias of the 13 independent states. The continental congress had no real power. It was a coordinating body. The AOC were enforced for 1781-1787 when the second American constitution came to be. During these years, there were problems with the articles that emerged. They particularly hit the elites who had put together the articles together in the first place. The first thing is the continental congress had a very hard time providing external security. Why? The continental congress didn’t have its own army. Some states didn’t want to give over militia, so they didn’t send them. Some states were concerned about Native American uprisings and the French. Another reason external security was difficult to provide was that the army was made up of farmers, and they could only be in the militaryfor like six months out of the year. They also had trouble providing internal security. Why? If there was a slave revolt or small farmer revolt in one of the northern states, those revolts could only be handled by the state police or militia in that state. Other stateswould not send troops to another state and help it put down some kind of an uprising. The colonies didn’t face an external security problem under the British colonial system because Britain provided the red coats. Internal security was also provided by the red coats. Since England had a national army, if there was a slave revolt in the south, England could bring the full force of the red coats onto that colony. States were reluctant to help other states.