Scripted or stereotyped speech Monotone speech, pace at which words come out seems jerky Words may be spaced awkwardly Pronoun reversal may be very common
May say you want juice instead of I want juice o B2: insistence on sameness, routines Extreme distress at small changes in a routine Changes in the way their toys are lined up Changes in the path taken to school Difficulties with transitions o B3: Highly restricted, fixated interests that are abnormal in intensity or focus Interests are ABNORMAL in intensity and focus o B4: Hyper – or hypo – reactivity to sensory input or unsual interests in sensory aspects of the environment Adverse response to specific sounds or textures Visual fascination with lights or movement Sensory self-stimulation Rocking back and forth Stimming Mother may need to squeeze childs arm very hard to get their attention because they enjoy the stimulation - Additional Criteria o Symptoms must be present in the early developmental period Much narrower age range than ID First three years of life specifically Doesn’t necessarily mean that the child must be diagnosed during this time Most children are diagnosed by the time they are 3 or 4 Very mild cases of autism are hard to find o Severity Ratings are very vague Level 1: Requiring support Level 2: Requiring substantial support Level 3: Requiring very substantial support - ASD Associated Characteristics o Cognitive Impairments 50-75% in intellectual disability range (IQ < 70) o Language Developmen t 1/3 to ½ fail to develop any speech , others may be delayed in reaching language milestones o Theory of Mind Deficits Difficulty understanding that other people have a different point of reference (e.g. different knowledge, experiences) Deficits in theory of mind might be a foundation for language disabilities o Self-Injurious Behaviors
E.g. head banging, skin picking, biting self Some self injurious behaviors might be stimulation seeking and this a repetitive behavior o Isolated, highly specialized skills “ savant abilties ” – exceptional skill in a certain areas only a case for very rare individuals; not a common characteristic o Motor coordination difficulties Handwriting may be poor Might have poor hand-eye coordination, bad at sports - ASD o Prevalence approximately 1% o About 1/88 chil;dren o 5 times more common in boys o One thing present in ALL ASD patients: SOCIAL IMPAIRMENT Can have a really large IQ or a really small IQ but social impairment is always present - Causes of ASD o Combination of genes and environment, with multiple genes involved We do not know exactly what genes are involved o Genetic Factors Higher prevalence (~20%) in siblings of children with ASD Higher concordance among MZ twins vs DZ twins o Parenting?
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- Spring '14
- Abnormal Psychology, Intelligence quotient, Mental retardation, adaptive functioning deficits